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its return to the library from which it was withdrawn 
i or before the Latest Date stamped below. 

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L161 O-1096 

Managers and Missionaries: 

Library Services to Children 

and Young Adults 
in the Information Age 



University of Illinois 

Graduate School of Library and Information Science 
Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 


Number 28 

Papers Presented at the Allerton Park Institute 
Sponsored by 

University of Illinois 
Graduate School of Library and Information Science 

Cosponsored by 

The Youth Divisions of the American Library Association: 

American Association of School Librarians (AASL) 

Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) 

Young Adult Services Division (YASD) 


November 14-16, 1986 
Chancellor Hotel & Conference Center 

1501 S. Neil 
Champaign, Illinois 

1989 by The Board of Trustees of The University of Illinois 
ISBN 0-87845-075-0 ISSN 0536-4604 



No. 28 6QPY- 3 

Cet> ' 3 CONTENTS 


Leslie Edmonds 




Marilyn L. Miller 




Regina Minudri 


Julie Cummins 



Christy Tyson 


Frances M. McDonald 


Su5an Rosenzweig 


Ruth E. Faklis 



Craighton Hippenhammer 




Margaret Bush 



Joan L. Atkinson 



Jana Varlejs 



Margaret Mary Kimmel 




Helen Lloyd Snoke 




Judith A. Drescher 


Delores Zachary Pretlow 



Gerald G. Hodges 



Dawn H. Heller 

INDEX.. ,.163 


The 1986 Allerton Institute was developed to provide a forum for discus- 
sion of theories and means of meeting the information needs of children 
and young adults in both school and public library settings. The institute 
was cosponsored by the Graduate School of Library and Information 
Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the three youth 
divisions of the American Library Association (ALA): the American Asso- 
ciation of School Librarians (AASL), the Association for Library Service to 
Children (ALSC), and the Young Adult Services Division (YASD). The 
conference was supported by the World Book ALA Goal Award and 
twenty Illinois participants received grants from the Illinois State Library to 
enable their attendance at the conference. The conference program was devel- 
oped with the particular help of Ann Weeks and Evelyn Shaevel, both of ALA. 

Speakers gave an overview of issues in the field of youth librarianship 
and presented perspectives on specific issues challenging librarians and 
media specialists. Speakers and conference participants worked together to 
determine directions and strategies for the profession as we look to a 
changing information environment in the years to come. 

Four focus areas were the basis of the presentations. The papers that 
follow were written and presented by nationally-known leaders and are 
meant to provide a summary of activity in the field. The four focus areas 
are: (1) management of youth services, (2) recruitment and education for 
children's and young adult specialists, (3) evaluation of services to children 
and young adults, and (4) the development of a "Youth Agenda" for the 
youth divisions of the American Library Association and the profession. 

The idea of a national conference grew out of a concern that we have a 
paucity of comprehensive and serious treatment of issues in the field of 


Managers and Missionaries 

youth librarianship. The previous 1977 Allerton Institute addressed the 
status of children's services in public library settings. All three youth 
divisions of ALA regularly address the issues of importance to each of their 
constituencies. There seemed to be few opportunities to address issues 
across age and type of library boundaries. This Allerton Institute was 
created to give both practitioners and academics a forum to address profes- 
sional topics and to delineate areas of concern, problems in the field, and 
direction for professional activity as we approach a new century and a new 
and changing information environment. 

Marilyn Miller, in her keynote presentation, gives an insightful over- 
view of the issues likely to be facing us in providing library sen ice to youth 
in the twenty-first century. She draws both on her background as a leader 
both in AASL and ALSC as well as thoughtful consideration of current 
library practice to present an analysis of information services to young 
people in the next twenty years. 

Regina Minudri, director of the Berkeley Public Library and president 
of the American Library Association, draws on her experience as a youth 
librarian and manager of a major public library to set out issues in 
management of youth services. Julie Cummins presents issues in the 
design of services to youth; Christy Tyson addresses issues of image, 
cooperation, and coalition building for youth service; and Frances 
McDonald explores access to information and youth rights. Susan Rosen- 
zweig and Ruth Faklis address needs for funding for services to youth, and 
Craighton Hippenhammer presents a model for marketing youth services 

The second area of focus is presented by Margaret Bush. She deals with 
issues of preparation and career development of professionals who serve 
youth. Special issues in library education are presented by: Joan Atkinson, 
who discusses standards and performance appraisal of personnel; Jana 
Varlejs, who presents issues in the need for and delivery of continuing 
education; and by Margaret Kimmel, who provides demographic informa- 
tion on the profession. Also presented is an analysis of library education by 
Helen Snoke, from the School of Library Science at the University of 
Michigan; Judith Drescher, director of Memphis-Shelby County Public 
Library; and Delores Pretlow, Media Center coordinator for the Rich- 
mond, Virginia Public Schools. 

In the important area of evaluation of service to children and young 
adults, Gerald Hodges presents various measures of service as well as issues 
in the field of measurement. Dawn Heller articulates areas of concern 
expressed by conference participants which have been the basis of goal 
development for the ALA youth divisions. 

The ALA youth divisions responded to the recommendations from 
this Allerton Institute by creating the Allerton/ Alliance Joint Youth Di\ i- 


sions Task Force. The task force had representatives from each youth 
division, and each member had attended the 1986 Allerton Institute. The 
task force was charged with the creation of a position paper based on the 
Allerton Institute and the Alliance for Excellence Task Force Report. The 
report of the Allerton/Alliance Joint Youth Divisions Task Force was 
submitted to the Joint Youth Divisions Executive Committee at the ALA 
Annual Conference in New Orleans in July 1988. The recommendations of 
this task force were for the adoption of the task force report by the youth 
divisions of the ALA and ALA Council and that an ALA task force be 
appointed to draft an implementation plan for the recommendations of 
the task force. 

The premise of this Allerton Institute and for the subsequent work of 
the Task Force is that the quality of service provided by libraries and media 
centers is important to the social, cultural, and intellectual life of the youth 
served. Further, it is the responsibility of librarians serving youth to be 
advocates for excellent service to young patrons. It is the role of the 
American Library Association to provide leadership and education to 
youth services librarians so that they are prepared to be effective service 
providers in the complex, technological information environment of the 
society of the future. 

It is through the interweaving of these elements and responsibilities 
that progress in youth services will be made. It is hoped that this Allerton 
Institute and the published proceedings will be important steps in address- 
ing the issues facing the field on a national level. We need to look carefully 
at ourselves, our institutions, and youth themselves from the varying 
perspectives of supervisors, grassroots service providers, the professional 
association, and library educators. This institute was the work of many 
people, planners, speakers, and participants and as such represents a 
coalition of individuals who can contribute to the growth and change of 
library service to youth as we move toward the twenty-first century. 




Professor and Chair 

Department of Information and Library Studies 
University of North Carolina 
Greensboro, North Carolina 

Changing Priorities for Service 

to Children and Adolescents 
in School and Public Libraries 

This paper is an attempt to present some issues and concerns that will have 
to be addressed as continued plans are made for library programs for young 
people that will serve them effectively in the coming decade. 

This Allerton Institute is a milestone in the history of the development 
of library service to American youth. What is now organized as three youth 
divisions of the American Library Association (ALA) The American 
Association of School Librarians (AASL), The Association for Library 
Service to Children (ALSC), and The Young Adult Services Division 
(YASD) was at one time a single body representing all youth services. 
Youth services librarians worked together originally as an organized, 
integrated group. They separated thirty-five years ago to develop unique 
areas of specialization by type of library and age level. Now in a different 
and fast changing period of time, youth services librarians are being forced 
to confront the inescapable fact that they may have to come together again 
in some way to provide more effective service to a shrinking youth popula- 
tion beset by tremendous social and cultural change and unrelenting rapid 
technological development. 

Organizationally, youth services librarians have tried for the past 
several years to have more jointly sponsored programs at national confer- 
ences. ALA candidates and forums have been sponsored at the ALA Mid- 
winter meetings, the three executive committees have met regularly twice a 
year to discuss ways of cooperating and positions that might be taken fora 
political impact on ALA. Overlapping services and activities are begin- 
ning to be thought of as possibilities for cooperation ideas coming from 
the Alliance for Excellence and joint publications. And on the home front 
in various cities and small towns across the country, there have been 

Managers and Missionaries 

cooperative efforts at book evaluation and selection, union catalogs, 
resource sharing, homework hotlines, school visits, and public library 
field trips. All of these things have been and are good, and these must 
neither be denigrated nor stopped. However, it is suggested that the time 
has come to confront strategies and methods, prejudices, and territorial 
imperatives and to look at some changing priorities for delivering library 
service to the young. From that effort, youth services librarians could 
develop heightened understandings of each other and those served, decide 
to pool efforts, to share expertise, and to plan more effectively to improve 
both organizational efforts and program delivery in more home communi- 
ties than is now done. 

Library services are offered within a social context. The society that is 
shaping the current crop of children is very different from the society most 
of us grew up in. Children now sitting in preschools will graduate in the 
year 2001. They will not remember a time without computers and VCRs. 
The children we are talking about serving in the next fifteen years will be 
confronted by unrelenting and rapid changes in the demographic compo- 
sition of society, family structure, schooling, and technology. In addition, 
the changing economy, with its developing global nature, especially a 
transnational work force competition that is forcing a national move away 
from an emphasis on an indigenous skilled blue collar work force and 
small family farms, forms a backdrop against which all other social issues 
swirl and take shape. 

Demographics must be considered in designing future library service 
to youth. Census statistics reveal that, in general, we will have an older 
population, fewer children, and a different ethnic mix. The traditional 
nuclear family has broken up, and many single parent homes managed by 
women are homes of poverty. Specifically, the ethnic/linguistic composi- 
tion of the population is changing rapidly and drastically. The birthrate 
for white women in the United States has dropped from a peak of 2.9 
children per woman during the baby boom era to 1.7 in 1984. In compari- 
son to 1970, there are some 100,000 fewer white children under the age of 
five and 280,000 more black children. The fastest growing minority group 
is Mexican-American, whose birthrate of 2.9 children per woman is cur- 
rently the highest in the nation. (Asian-American populations are also 
growing rapidly but because of immigration and not birthrates.) In 1985, 
two-thirds of all immigration in the world was to the United States. The 
first institution to receive the children of these immigrants is the school, 
the second is the church, and it is hoped that the third is the public library. 
Fully 27 percent of all public school students in the United States represent 
minorities, and each of the nation's twenty-four largest city school systems 
has a "minority majority." By approximately the year 2010, one of every 
three Americans will be black, Hispanic, or Asian-American. 

Changing Priorities for Service to Children and Adolescents 

In 1983, for the first time in history, there were more people over 65 
than there were teenagers. Of the 24 million Americans over 65, 2.2 million 
are over 85 and 30,000 are over 100. One forecaster has predicted that by the 
year 2000 there will be over 100,000 people over 100 years of age. In essence 
we are talking about a smaller generation of workers containing a larger 
percentage of women and minorities that must supply the financial sup- 
port for not only a huge number of retired parents and grandparents but for 
the public schools and libraries and other public institutions that serve the 
young. Every forecaster reminds us that youth will become relatively 
scarce. Children will truly become national treasures eagerly recruited by 
colleges, the military, and employers. (McDonald's, I was told last spring 
on a professional visit to Connecticut, now buses teenagers from the Bronx 
into Connecticut suburbs to keep the glow on the golden arches and the 
eggs in the McMuffins.) Tomorrow's children will have even more oppor- 
tunities (or problems) than their predecessors. 

A few years ago, this author saw a fascinating film for the teaching of 
visual literacy. One section of the film had pulled together a montage of 
television commercials depicting the typical American family as portrayed 
by cereal and Jello commercials in the fifties. The typical Jello family 
father in business suit, mother in pretty dress with two children (a boy 
child and a girl child) all sitting at a formally laid dining room table 
having, of course, good conversation about the day's activities as they 
consumed a well-balanced meal of salad, meat, vegetable, potato, and 
dessert (Jello, of course). That two-child, two-parent family doesn't exist 
anymore. Urie Bronfenbrenner (1977) stated unequivocably in a report ten 
years ago that: "The family is not currently a social unit we value or 
support" (p. 39). 

Although the present administration would have us believe otherwise, 
the devastating cuts in human aid programs give lie to the word. And the 
shunning by adolescents of adult family contact, advice, and company for 
the sharing of ignorance and myth of their peers is a concern addressed by 
few. The partial results of this contemporary youth society and the break- 
down of the family unit and support systems can be seen in the 9,000 
teenage suicides, the majority of whom, some say, are gifted and talented, 
and the 25,000 deaths by automobile in 1985 alone a total of 34,000 
teenagers. This is more teenagers than attend the high schools in the 
Durham, Raleigh, Chapel Hill area. 

Of today's children, 14 percent are illegitimate, 40 percent will be 
living with a single parent by their eighteenth birthday, 30 percent are 
latchkey children, and 20 percent live in poverty. One-third of all Ameri- 
can children will experience poverty sometime before reaching adulthood. 
Fifteen percent of today's children speak another language, 1 5 percent have 
physical or mental handicaps (Hodgkinson, 1986), and 10 percent have 

Managers and Missionaries 

poorly educated parents. Fifty percent of children under six have working 
mothers while 60 percent of children ages 6- 17 have working mothers (U.S. 
Bureau of the Census, 1985, p. 6). 

As we all know full well, the educational pendulum swings back and 
forth with great regularity in this country. The blessing and the curse of 
living in a democracy. The populace, it must be admitted, is fickle when it 
comes to dealing with social issues. Attention is short-lived and easily 
deflected. That is, of course, why missionaries are needed to keep the faith 
and remain steady to the resolve even when the public's attention is 
diverted. When the pendulum sweep starts back, the missionaries are ready 
to lead the forward motion. 

The problems facing education are disquieting. This is really not new 
considering the function of schools. But concern today is about the inequi- 
ties brought about by a philosophy that views an interstate highway system 
as federally fundable but not a fiscal floor for educational budgets to ensure 
a national minimum access to educational equity. Experts seem to agree 
that in addition to diminishing financial resources, there will be declining 
enrollment along with substantial shifts in enrollment at all levels of 
education. Some say the dropout problem will disappear in the next fifteen 
years because the job market and the military will be so hungry for the 
young that those disaffected with formal education will simply disappear 
and continue their learning in the informal educational institutions unbo- 
thered by the formal educational power structure because they are "off the 

There is no doubt that a power struggle for control of the curriculum 
exists. Who will determine what texts are to be used? What subject matter is 
to be taught? Schools have traditionally taught the values of the culture, 
thus they are always a little behind, and when values shift drastically, as 
certain elements of society today would have us believe is happening, the 
schools truly get caught in the crossfire. The battle lines are being drawn 
all over the country on the teaching of religion, sex education, values 
education, and global relationships, to name only a few. During this 
author's tenure in education, there has been a power shift from the local 
community, to the state, to the federal government, back to the local 
community, and now seeming to shift again to local competing commun- 
ity groups and competing professional organizations. If the school library 
media specialist cannot or will not buy materials objected to by commun- 
ity groups, will the public library stand strong? 

School faculties are graying. It is predicted that two-thirds of the 
current crop of school library media specialists will be gone within the 
decade. A few years ago the average age of teachers in San Francisco was 

Changing Priorities for Service to Children and Adolescents 

An increasingly litigious society and strident parents and students 
will continue to cast shadows on the desirability of remaining in the 
teaching profession. However, there is an exciting other side. The demand 
for teachers will be accompanied by a call for increasing the rigor as well as 
the quality of the curriculum and for teaching students to think i.e., to 
select, to compare, to evaluate, to synthesize. The Association for Supervi- 
sion and Curriculum Development (ASCD) is but one professional group 
calling for the teaching of thinking skills. ASCD is involved in a Collabo- 
rative on Teaching Thinking which is working to: ( 1 ) define thinking skills 
and processes, (2) encourage publishers to develop instructional materials 
and tests that promote student thinking, (3) establish a research agenda, 

(4) establish and encourage adoption of standards on teaching for pre- 
service and inservice education of both teachers and administrators, and 

(5) promote teaching thinking in a national public awareness campaign 
(Hughes, 1986, p. 33). Librarians both school and public need to watch 
this movement in terms of both selection and programs. Materials and 
activities which require students to develop higher order thinking skills 
will be essential, and teachers will be turning to us in both schools and 
public libraries for those resources. 

A few of the global problems that demand a well-educated and 
informed citizenry are a shrinking world with a burgeoning population, 
shortages of natural resources and a decline in food sources such as fish and 
fertile areas for farming, the rising tide of masses of refugees, 17 million 
economic and political exiles now live in a land other than their birth and 
thereby draw on the resources of wealthier nations. 

Last, but not least, of the trends affecting the future is the rapid 
development of communications technology i.e., the global village, 
microchip technology, publishing on demand, the digital transformation 
of the way messages are sent and received, new languages, read only 
memory discs, compact discs, handheld computers, voice activated calcula- 
tors, books printed on wafers to be used in calculators (which some predict 
may make the necessity for learning to read and write unnecessary). 

With all of these wonders, one might hasten to add that the citizenry 
can also be instantaneously galvanized and trivialized with the same 
media. The destruction of tradition, the creation of true masses, the 
"dumbing down" of textbooks have all become reality in the mid-1980s. 
Everything everybody ever knew can be stored. Data can be collected about 
people and their lives and hoarded away to be used in ways few dreamed 
could ever be possible. The poorest scholar can tap information at its 
creation. So impressed by microchips, information is beginning to be 
equated with education and knowledge. One should be reminded that 
technology is used to provide information that people can use to become 

10 Managers and Missionaries 

educated and to gain knowledge so that they may live full, useful, and 
productive lives. 

The electronic classroom of the future is here. The May-June 1986 
issue of The Futurist (Larick, 1986, pp. 21-22) describes the first phase of 
the Placentia Unified School District's (Orange Co., California) develop- 
ment of electronic classrooms. There is a similiar installation in Michigan 
(described in the School Library Journal by the library media director, 
Bernice Lamkin [1986]) an installation that is being replicated in a large 
number of high school renovations all over the country. These systems 
coordinate multiple technologies i.e., satellite-delivered instructional 
programming, laser discs, computers, videocassettes, and closed-circuit 
television. The coordinated system can be directed and monitored from a 
central workstation. Information can be obtained from international, 
national, regional, and local databases via microwave, cable, telephone, or 
fiber optics and put into the district resource computer from which it can 
be transmitted to classrooms upon request (Larick, 1986, p. 22). 

Against this backdrop of reality is changing demographics, shrinking 
financial resources, continued debate on education and its problems and 
strategies, and continued revolution in communications technology. How 
should goals and priorities be examined? The next step is to examine what 
is to be done based on demonstrated need and then decide how to do it. First 
it is decided what can be done to help this nation become a nation of 
readers. Then the approaches are examined: collections, coalitions, com- 
munity education to support the effort, and strategies to get children to 
recognize the importance of reading and to want to read. Then available 
resources needed to accomplish the task are examined e.g., personnel, 
other community agencies, collections, funding. Then strategies are deve- 
loped for meeting the shortfall i.e., acquisition of different kinds of 
materials, staff development, development of a volunteer cadre, commu- 
nity publicity, and legislative lobbying. The overriding concern is to an- 
swer the question: "How can we best effect the delivery of information and 
educational programs to the young that will enhance their growth and 
development into healthy productive citizens of a democratic society?" 
The following goals should be considered as deliberations are begun on 
new priorities: 

Attack the aliteracy problem. Work with those who know how to read 
but do not (an adolescent problem that one Westchester County library 
manager who is an active spokesperson for service to young adults told 
me recently is the most critical information/education problem facing 
educators who work with teenagers). 
Participate in the teaching of basic information skills. 
Assist in the teaching of critical thinking skills. 
Help immigrants maintain their culture. 

Changing Priorities for Service to Children and Adolescents 11 

Advocate services by other agencies and support those services with in- 
formation resources. 

Raise literacy. Support adult literacy programs. 
Support/implement, enrich, and extend school curricula. 
Shelter/after-school activities i.e., provide a safe place. 
Provide materials for counseling i.e., bibliotherapeutic use. 
Make common knowledge of society available in appropriate forms. 
Provide services to unserved groups in the population. 
Provide referral services to other human services agencies. 
Provide information on social and medical problems of concern to the 


Be more effective in working with adults who work with children i.e., 
parents, teachers, grandparents, social workers. 

As these priorities are discussed and fleshed out, arguments to consider 
are: (1) missions: where, as type of library, youth services librarians differ 
and where they support each other; (2) patterns of service and collection 
development; (3) recruitment and library education efforts; and (4) the 
possibilities of forming coalitions. 

As these missions are considered, remember that both school and 
public libraries are educational institutions. The school library is con- 
cerned with both the schooling of the young and their education. The 
public library which has traditionally seen itself as an educational institu- 
tion has also felt that it offered these experiences informally and voluntar- 
ily. The serendipity of the public library experience is truly one of the most 
intriguing aspects of the library for those who use it well. But if a coalition 
to improve information services is going to be formed, public librarians 
need to cast off the idea that curriculum is a word or process that is to be 
avoided. For some the definition of curriculum as planned learning expe- 
riences suffices to begin a discussion. Both school and public librarians 
serving youth must be cognizant of what is being planned and taught in 
the schools if collections are to be developed that serve the information, 
learning, and developmental needs of children. 

One major thing that prevents moving comfortably into this arena of 
joint understanding is a tension between school and public library service 
to children that is untenable as youth services librarians plan for the future. 
This tension needs to be resolved by a recognition of that tension i.e., its 
roots and its counterproductivity. 

Braverman (1979) traces this tension back at least to 1913 the year 
that Edwin White Gaillard was eased out of his New York Public Library 
job as superintendent of work with the public schools and Anne Carroll 
Moore brought all services to children under her jurisdiction. As Braver- 
man notes, the roots of this tension are both economic and philosophic, 
and since the real disagreements and uneasinesses are tacit and often 

12 Managers and Missionaries 

unrecognized, it is possible for most to pay lip service to the ideal of 
cooperation between school and public libraries, but it may not be possible 
to cooperate without first confronting a few personal implicit beliefs. As 
Braverman (1979) documents this period, she notes that Gaillard "worked 
systematically to bring library resources to the schools, which then had few 
library services. [This] included supplying classroom collections and help 
to teachers, the setting up of a model school library, as well as providing 
reference services for students, special collections for teachers and class 
visits to the branches" (p. 16). Apparently, reports Braverman, Gaillard's 
jurisdiction overlapped with Moore's more than his philosophy did. 
"Moore thought that libraries should be used informally and voluntarily 
to promote the joy of reading" (p. 17). What a shame that a mission 
statement that encompassed all of those objectives could not be hammered 
out except for the interactions or lack of interactions and communication 
of those early leaders. 

On a personal note, one of the genuinely exciting events of being 
president of ALSC was participating in a U.S. mission to visit children's 
libraries in the U.S.S.R. Participants visited many public libraries, some 
school libraries, and trade union and pioneer palace libraries. The first 
goal of all libraries in the U.S.S.R. that serve children is to support and 
encourage children to read and to see that the materials rtecessary to 
complete school assignments are available. Soviet librarians have organ- 
ized study areas in public libraries, and public and pioneer palace libraries 
have reserve school and text collections. It was emphasized over and over 
again how important it is for children to learn to read and to want to read. 
It is not suggested that present models be replaced with the Soviet model, 
but it is suggested that programs developed in isolation from each other do 
not serve youth well. 

In the United States, people are socialized by separate organizations, 
separate association journals, and separate library school classes, and by 
careful distinctions made by commission or omission. Through socializa- 
tion, a blend of routines, ideals, selection techniques, programming hab- 
its, and expectations are acquired. Things are learned that conflict and 
which cannot be believed simultaneously with any logic, but youth ser- 
vices librarians go on believing them because they are too busy even to 
notice that they have been learned. 

Patterns of service and collection development in school and public 
libraries must be reviewed in terms of resource sharing demanded by 
diminishing financial resources and continued acceleration of informa- 
tion produced by research, discovery, and publication by scholars, creative 
artists, industry, and groups of citizens demanding to be heard. Acquisi- 
tion of materials based on an identification of information, idea, and 
knowledge needs determined by educational and developmental needs of 

Changing Priorities for Service to Children and Adolescents 13 

users is crucial. A view of nonfiction collections that match needs shaped 
by sex, age, and socioeconomic condition must be developed if the young 
are going to find libraries truly essential. The response to a child or student 
who asks for a "good book" should be motivated by the need of the child 
and not just a personal aesthetic response to children's books. And one 
should pursue discussions of programs for the next century by realizing 
that users are immersed in a flood of information from a startlingly broad 
array of sources. It must be considered that without intermediaries, people 
can still be information poor if they do not know how to organize it for use, 
deal with it critically, and use it for a positive, beneficial purpose. It must 
also be realized that when collection development is discussed for the next 
century, the discussion should not be just about collections at one site. It 
must be known where other collections are located and how data can be 
acquired, repackaged, and disseminated. The consultant, facilitator, and 
producer roles will define youth services librarians just as much as these are 
the roles of the "special" librarian, for all users, regardless of age, will have 
options for access. This author must confess that she remains momentarily 
helpless still, after all of these years when students say they have 
decided to go into public library work rather than school library work 
because they love books so much. The future will place many different 
demands upon youth services librarians because of personal knowledge 
and abilities. "Just the books" won't be enough. 

As noted earlier, curriculum is not a naughty word. Going to school is 
the full-time job of millions of residents in this country. These residents 
need good school libraries and good public libraries. They need school 
libraries which are available to them during the day and which are not full 
of organized classes teaching library skills in isolation of what is being 
presented in the classroom. They need public library collections that will 
extend and support what they are learning in school as well as provide 
them with the information needed to develop personally. 

Public library collection development policies that on the one hand 
prohibit acquisitions that might support school work, but that, on the 
other hand, articulate the desire to serve the recreation, information, and 
cultural needs of children are puzzling. In reviewing several selection 
policies, I have found that many are vague and seemingly unresponsive to 
children's school needs when describing in positive terms the great infor- 
mational needs of the young. 

When examining policies: do they reflect the full-time work and needs 
of children? Do they reflect technology other than books? Are they positive 
supportive statements or are they too careful to list the restrictions? Are 
nonfiction books being recommended to an adolescent who says he/she 
needs a good book? Have the information needs of patrons been examined 
and then materials acquired? Have systems for keeping nonfiction 

14 Managers and Missionaries 

collections up-to-date and accurate been developed? Are public and school 
librarians talking together in a community about sex education, child 
abuse, careers of the future, alternatives to a college education, drug abuse, 
loneliness, peer pressure, nuclear war, and terrorism? After talking about 
those subjects and determining what is being collected, are discussions 
being held about practices and patterns of program development for 
getting those resources used that will be mutually supportive? Are public 
and school librarians talking together about the fact that 34,000 teenagers 
died in 1985? All ills cannot be cured nor all problems solved, but the 
potential in contributing to answers and solutions for some should at least 
be rethought. 

Public library service to adolescents as dreamed of in the fifties, sixties, 
and seventies is not to be at least in this century. The realities of school, 
work, social pressures, and communications technology confront the 
avowed mission to adolescents with too much to overcome. Youth services 
librarians should face this fact. Public library directors have had to make 
choices, and they have dared to allocate this specialization to school 
librarians, and they have gotten away with it. It is hoped, however, that 
there will always be public librarians with a passion and a concern for 
serving adolescents and that they also will provide leadership through 
ALA in some organized form both to make certain that public libraries are 
serving the information resource needs of these young people. It is hoped 
they will care also about the library service in the secondary schools. 

The question nagging at many youth services librarians is: where are 
the next decades' youth services librarians coming from? In my own state, 
the gains made in the seventies in staffing professional children's librar- 
ians in public libraries is being eroded: lower salaries than the public 
schools, lower salaries than surrounding states, and a desire to be part of a 
career ladder are taking their toll. All are familiar with the public school 
situation i.e., the shunning of education by the bright, the variety of 
career opportunities now open to women, and the alarming retirement 
projections for school library media specialists. Where youth specialists 
will be educated is slightly less a concern than wondering about their 
recruitment. Accredited library schools continue to be dismantled one 
closing announced this fall and one undergoing the type of program 
evaluation that has typically led to closure. The American Library Associa- 
tion has been strangely silent about this phenomenon. In the meantime, 
small unaccredited programs in schools of education in small colleges and 
universities all over the country are producing large numbers of school 
library media specialists entering the field. At this writing neither ALA nor 
any of its divisions has any input into the evaluation and guidance of the 
development and implementation of these programs. With the closure of 
programs has gone the opportunity to provide professional public library 

Changing Priorities for Service to Children and Adolescents 15 

directors and children's librarians for many small public libraries, and 
with the draining of the pool of qualified librarians goes access. If the 
American Library Association is not going to promote education for the 
operation of tomorrow's libraries, then it should at least be proposing to 
study alternatives for the training of those who will be organizing informa- 
tion for delivery to various communities. 

Certainly we are beginning to forge coalitions by coming here and 
thinking about the future as public and school library media specialists. It 
is believed, however, that the leadership of the youth professions should 
move more publicly and diligently to identify mutual concerns with other 
educational and helping professions. School library media specialists are 
coming to see that they can reach more young people if they work more 
diligently with the teachers. Public librarians may serve more children and 
adolescents also if they make more contacts with adult youth workers in the 
community. It was made clear during this Allerton Institute that the 
terrible struggle for First Amendment survival is going to be won only if 
coalitions are forged between and among organizations, professions, and 
the general public. The struggle to produce physically and mentally 
healthy young adults will take a coalition of social and public health 
workers, service groups, the law, educators, information specialists, librar- 
ians, and governments. Should we not begin to identify and promote some 
models at the national and state levels to help communities develop some 
of the same sorts of working and sharing relationships? 

There are wonderful public and private schools in this country. There 
are outstanding public library and school library media programs across 
the nation. They set the pace and demonstrate excellence. But as we look 
ahead to the challenge of providing leadership to the next generation of 
librarians who will serve different constituencies than have many of us in a 
world that has undergone radical social change, there are things we must 
address. It is hoped that this conference will produce new mandates for 
library school researchers, the managers, and the missionaries. The man- 
date is to examine the mission, the collections, access and adequate staf- 
fing, the response to emerging technologies, and cooperative efforts. 

The goal should be to have library/media/information services to the 
young directed by a professional. As a profession, answers must be found to 
the questions of staffing, educating, and recruiting able people and then 
work to provide structure to enable the service provider to offer youth the 
best in library/media services. 


Braverman, M. (1979). Youth, society, and the public library. Chicago: ALA. 

16 Managers and Missionaries 

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977, February). Disturbing changes in the American family. Education 

Digest, 42, 22-25. 

Hodgkinson, H. L. (1986, January). What's ahead for education? Principal, 65(3). 
Hughes, C. S. (1986, Fall). Teaching strategies for developing student thinking: Strategies for 

teachers and for library media specialists. School Library Media Quarterly, 75(1), 33-36. 
Lamkin, B. (1986, November). A media center for the 21st century. School Library Media 

Quarterly, 33(3), 25-29. 

Larick, K. T. Jr., & Fischer, J. (1986, May/June). The Futurist, 20(3), 21-22. 
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1985). Statistical abstract of the United States: 1986 (106th Ed.). 

Washington, DC: USGPO. 


President, American Library Association 
Director, Berkeley (California) Public Library 

Management of Youth Services: 
Political, Financial, and Social Implications 

Why is it so hard to convince people adult people that children are 
important and that they are the brightest and need the best? Why do we 
continually undervalue those who serve children, those who teach chil- 
dren, and those who care for children? Why must libraries, schools, and 
other educational institutions beg for crumbs while society force feeds the 
bloated military/industrial complex? Why do aging leaders forget that 
youths die when nations fight? Why is the future mortgaged to pay for the 
fantasies of the past? 

Implications of the Management of Youth Services 

It is interesting to note the order in which these implications are 
presented. Five years ago we might have seen the fiscal side head the list. 
Ten years ago there was a fascination with social implications and societal 
changes. Today politics takes first position. That observation is not meant 
to imply that political considerations are more important than those of the 
budget or those of the surrounding communities, but it is the juxtaposi- 
tion that interests this author. 

For decades youth services librarians have been missionaries in the 
most generic sense. Our foremothers worked long and hard to establish the 
importance of library services to young people, to establish patterns and 
methods of serving youth, to communicate a strong sense of commitment, 
and provide a solid philosophical base. For many years these dedicated 
individuals toiled hard in the fields nurturing, pruning, weeding, and 
tending the garden. They made it possible to develop means and methods 
for today. Youth services librarians owe them a very large debt. 

The only way that debt to our foremothers can be paid is to guarantee 
that quality library services to children and youth continue to exist and, in 
fact, continue to grow and develop. We know that children are the future of 


18 Managers and Missionaries 

the world. We know that just as there is a debt to the past, there is an equal 
debt to the future. This debt must be repaid in the form of a legacy of 
superior library services, of humanistic and careful administration, and of 
institutions which respond easily and quickly to user needs. It is important 
that we work hard to pave the way for the librarians who will follow; the 
librarians who will continue the job after we are long gone. 

Political Implications 

The political implications of life in the 1980s and 1990s force us to 
recognize where funding responsibilities lie, how these can be understood, 
how these can be affected, and how best to position youth services so that 
adequate financial resources allow the provision of superior services. Lots 
of folks say that they don't want to be bothered with political activity, that 
it is too time-consuming, that it doesn't have anything to do with their 
chosen field of endeavor, etc. 

Youth services librarians serve the most visible and most vocal clien- 
tele in all of libraryland. Children are the most photogenic of library users. 
They are cute and just about everyone agrees that children are important. 
The job is to get people to put their money where their mouths are and 
establish priorities that serve youth well. That requires political 

So often it appears as though we forget what truly useful skills youth 
services librarians possess. It is easy to use publicity skills and promotional 
abilities. To begin with, see to it that flyers announcing programs are 
always sent to library management trustees, city councils, and other 
governmental agencies. Invite politicos to awards ceremonies. Be sure to 
have a photographer there to take pictures, and be sure that the politicos 
are aware that a photographer will be there. Don't forget the effectiveness 
of the kissing babies syndrome. Post the photographs and send them to the 
media. It is assumed here that you know what to send, where to send it, and 
who will help to get it published. 

Lobbying and political strategies are mostly common sense. 
Remember that strength is in numbers and that real strength lies in 
affiliating with others who. have similar interests. When E.J. Josey used 
coalitions as the theme for his ALA presidential year, he really had the 
right idea. It is important that legislators, no matter at what level local, 
regional, state, or national see that there is a community of interest and 
broad support for the issues we champion. There are the obvious cohorts 
such as child care providers, schools, recreation centers, and the not-so- 
obvious like senior centers, health care providers, social workers, book- 
sellers, local chambers of commerce, and the like. You can find common 
ground with just about all these folks, they can support you, and you can 
support them. That is what coalition building is all about. 

Management of Youth Services 19 

It is also important that we keep ourselves well informed, that we 
inform allies, and that we speak, if not always with one voice, then at least 
in the same key. Be logical, know the issues, and know the interests of your 
legislators. Don't worry if, when you call, you speak to an aide. It is often a 
legislator's aide that makes decisions, assists in making policy, and advises 
the boss. 

Be more than a single issue person (you will find yourself doing this as 
you build coalitions). It is important that you watch and read so you are 
aware of where your legislator stands. 1 1 is helpful to be able to refer to some 
earlier action of the legislator that you liked, some issue on which you 
agree with her/him. 

If a legislator does right by you, send thanks. Let the legislator know 
that you appreciate the help and that you recognize the good he or she has 
done. Remember that we often complain and rarely compliment elected 
officials. They are human too and certainly appreciate knowing that 
somebody likes what they are doing just as you would if you were in that 
position. A brief note will do. 

Utilize library support groups like Friends of the Library. Everybody 
needs friends, and thank God that libraries have them. Friends of the 
Library are often listened to better than librarians because they are not 
perceived to have a vested interest. Local officials therefore consider them 
to be concerned and motivated citizens and pay attention to them. Don't 
ever underestimate the power of a vocal, well-informed citizenry on any 
elected official. Therefore be sure that your Friends of the Library are 
well-informed and are kept up to date. They are extremely valuable to any 
library. If you think all of this takes a lot of work, you're right. If you think 
you may not be able to do it on work time, you're right. If you think it is a 
long row to hoe, you're right. 

Two heartening victories in California demonstrated how important 
all these lobbying efforts are: 

1. In Berkeley after Proposition 13 we passed a local tax measure to 
support the public library. It was a massive effort with much work from 
the library staff, the Friends of the Library, and many interested local 
folks. We passed the measure with 68 percent of the vote. It's good for 
ten years and during the life of the measure it will bring in over 30 
million new dollars to the library. Not bad for a first effort. We are now 
planning for the renewal and continuance of the library tax in 1988. We 
have begun the effort to involve the Berkeley community at the primary 
planning level and are in the process of identifying critical issues and 
long-range needs for the library and its services. 

2. In 1983 California's legislature created the Public Library Fund, an act 
which gave per capita support to the state's public libraries for the first 
time. In 1983 it was $6 million, in 1984 $12 million, in 1985 $18 million, 

20 Managers and Missionaries 

and we anticipate approximately $20-22 million in 1986. All for public 

Neither of these efforts could have been achieved without massive 
efforts on the part of those involved. They would have been impossible 
without the help and support of the citizenry at large who perceived that 
public libraries were a public good and believed that the state had and 
continues to have a statewide responsibility to public libraries. State sup- 
port of libraries public, academic, and school is critical to develop- 
ment, growth, networking, resource sharing. Youth services must be in- 
volved in these plans and represent the needs of their clientele. 

There are a couple of questions for you. How many of you know: Who 
your mayor is? Who the members of the City Council are? Members of 
County Boards? State Assemblyman? State Senator? U.S. Congressperson? 
U.S. Senator? It is good to know who these people are and how to reach 
them. Also, how many of them know you? Think about that for a moment. 

We are aware of the past, know the present, and must be ready for the 
future. Because of special skills, knowledge, and abilities, we have a debt to 
the future that cannot be minimized. People do what they want to do. We 
achieve what we want to achieve. Our potential is truly boundless. We have 
the resources and the intelligence. We also have the drive and the need. All 
we need now is to go out and do it. 

Financial Implications 

Budgets are compilations of numbers. They are meant to help, to 
assist, and to guide. They are often used to distract, to restrain, to compel, 
and to obstruct. Budgets can be what you make of them. Remember that 
while numbers may not lie, numbers don't always tell the whole truth. 

A budget is a true test of priorities. No matter what people might say 
about how important something is, you must always look at how they 
spend their money in order to get a clear picture of what is really impor- 
tant. Just take a look at the federal budget and see how much importance 
the present administration places on education, the ecology, and defense. 
Your library's budget will demonstrate clearly the library's priorities no 
matter what the stated objectives may be. As the budget is examined in this 
light, many will recognize that this is an uphill battle. It is here that 
internal coalitions and internal political activity develops between library 
units, divisions, and departments. 

Just as we use intelligence in the external political arena, so it is 
necessary to know how things work internally i.e., inside the bureau- 
cratic institutions. The same rules apply. No matter what the library 
setting is like, it will have its own set of internal political considerations. It 
is important to develop the ability to lobby, form coalitions, understand 

Management of Youth Services 21 

climates, communicate effectively, and work within your own 

No one can afford to be isolated, or to be perceived as being isolated or 
aloof. Today the team or task force approach to problem solving lends 
itself well to increased multilevel participation in the quest for solutions. 
Recognize the inherent truth in the old adage that if you are not part of the 
solution you are part of the problem. 

Gathering information, building bridges, and communicating needs 
are activities that help. You must know who to talk to and when, you must 
understand how to present your needs, how to defend them, how to justify 
them, and how to relate them to the overall goals and objectives of the 

As you enter this arena you need to know how to play the game, the 
lingo, and the rules. You need to know the box scores, the batting averages, 
the handicaps, etc. Learn the rules. When I first became an administrator, I 
was often asked why. Why did I leave the front lines of library service and 
ensconce myself behind a desk protected by a secretary and inaccessible to 
the public? Why indeed? I became an administrator because I thought I 
could do the job and because I felt I had a mission, a challenge, and a goal 
of superior service. I hoped to make the library responsive, user-friendly, 
and an integral part of the community it serves. I also hoped to enable the 
staff to provide the highest possible level of library services. 

This is not a challenge that can be met in a single summer but rather 
takes a lot of winters, autumns, springs, and summers. It takes time, effort, 
energy, persistence, tenacity, and sometimes sheer dumb stubbornness. A 
good manager must not be afraid to make mistakes or be controversial. As 
my mother once said when I complained about controversy and hassle: if 
you don't have controversy, maybe nothing vital is happening. You're 
doing nothing new, no changes are taking place. Nothing risked is 
nothing gained. 

What do you need to know about administration in order to survive 
and to become more vital and viable? First, you have to know the ropes. 
You have to become aware of the atmosphere, the milieu, the vibes. It is 
important that you have the ability to speak the language when you visit 
foreign climes, or you'll never be understood by the natives, and for sure 
you'll never find the secret passageways to the treasure vaults. Budget 
processes generally run throughout the year and it is not unusual for 
administration to be working simultaneously on three or even four fiscal 
years. It is important that the library's budget cycle is clearly understood 
and that the calendar of events and deadlines are kept. 

When dealing with justifications, keep in mind that statements need 
to be phrased in the boiler plate used inside your bureaucracy. Trends exist 
in budgeting just as they do in fashion. Relate cause to effect, effort and 

22 Managers and Missionaries 

person hours to quantifiable goals and measurable results. Develop pro- 
posals which enhance, enable, and extend while demonstrating a clear 
understanding of relationships within the bureaucracy. 

Allocation of scarce resources (our resources are always scarce) is the 
single most important activity of library management. Personnel re- 
sources, more commonly known as people, are the most valuable resource 
of any library as well as the largest single expenditure often up to 80 
percent of the budget. Extreme care must be taken so that precious time is 
not wasted so that people are allowed to go about their work efficiently. 
Wasting personnel resources is like throwing money into a dustbin. In 
preparing proposals, take care that the right people are doing the right 
things at the proper levels. 

There is no special club for managers, no secret handshakes, no 
Egyptian robes to wear. Management is a constant exercise in coping 
skills. The real secrets lie in understanding where you are going, how you 
are going to get there, what needs to be done, who will do it, and when to 
make your move. It is always necessary to be fair, direct, and honest and to 
treat others as you like to be treated. Common sense, imagination, and 
empathy serve any manager well. 

Many librarians serving youth complain that they aren't taken 
seriously by their administrators, managers, or supervisors. It seems that 
we still suffer from some of the myths about youth services librarians. 
Following are some common myths stated in negative terms. A later 
discussion will show how they can be turned around and made positive. 
Sadly, some of these are self-perpetuating. Youth services librarians: are 
childlike, overly identified with client group; are incapable of seeing the 
big picture; don't see beyond their own services; are emotional; can't be 
reasoned with are stubborn; live in an Ivory Tower; are inflexible; fluster 
easily; don't understand budgets; don't know how to justify requests 
(because they only ask for what is right, true, just, and good); can't estimate 
or forecast; refuse to listen to reason won't compromise; and won't set 
priorities because everything is important. 

Are any of these familiar? Do you recognize yourselves? It is hoped not. 
These myths can be turned around and viewed on the positive side and then 
transferable skills can be recognized as being possessed by those serving 

For example, anyone who can manage twenty hyperactive children in 
a story hour can work easily with a group of reasonably docile adults. 
Anyone who can produce flyers, bibliographies, and prepare weekly or 
monthly programs has already figured out how to deal with media and 
promotion. Anyone who can coordinate and produce summer reading 
programs, visits, and do booktalks to classrooms full of "spring-filled" 
young adults has organizational skills. Anyone who can evaluate and 

Management of Youth Services 23 

review thousands of books and relate them to thousands of others in the 
collection can certainly understand the "big picture." 

It is important that we all understand and use the language of admin- 
istration in order to get our points across. Fie, you may say, "don't want to 
learn gobbledygook like that." You had best learn this game because it's 
the only one in town. If you want to get what's best for your department, 
you really must be able to present its needs carefully, in the best possible 
light, to those who make the decisions. 

It is equally important that you know what is going on in your own 
local situation. You should be aware of the political context which sur- 
rounds your library. It is important that you be cognizant of changes in 
income levels, education levels, population changes, things which can 
become predictors of future trends. We are an aging society. Population 
forecasts show that by the year 2000 we will have more people over sixty- 
five than under eighteen. These changes in population do not negate the 
need for quality library services to youth. You must be prepared with your 
justifications, your arguments, and your persuasive forces because hard 
questions will be asked. You will be expected to come up with the answers. 

I am convinced that youth services librarians have underestimated 
themselves and have not recognized the transferable skills they possess. 
These skills make people eligible for advancement. They enable and 
empower, but only when the particular skills, knowledge, and abilities are 
recognized, are translated into the appropriate jargon, and are presented 
positively. It is endemic to society that those who serve children and youth 
are undervalued. Somehow serving children and youth is seen as less 
important than taking out the garbage. Anyone can do it after all they're 
only kids. What a false and fruitless attitude. However, this attitude per- 
sists because we allow it. We don't sing our own praises or shout our 
accomplishments. If we don't care enough to take care of ourselves, how 
can we expect someone else to do the job for us? A skilled and talented 
librarian can easily have a dramatic effect on the rest of a child's life. 

Women's professions are traditionally underpaid. Where is it written 
that a secretary should earn less than a gardener? The concept of pay equity 
is being heard loud and clear in our land, and women in many jurisdic- 
tions are fighting for equality, pay parity, and a larger slice of the pie. 
Librarians serving youth must join in this effort. 

This song rings loud and clear for librarians, 80 percent of whom are 
women in a traditionally undervalued market. Most of us work for govern- 
ment. We have been patient, calm, and soft-spoken. I believe that era is 
over. More and more women are speaking out or are refusing to take a pat 
on the head and a high sounding title instead of money. We are insisting on 
the value of our labor and the worth of contributions to our institutions. 

All librarians who occupy professional positions within a specific 

24 Managers and Missionaries 

library should be paid on the same scale, regardless of their specialty. This 
seems almost too obvious to state. A librarian is a librarian no less because 
she happens to serve youth. In fact, children's and young adult librarians 
must know two collections and be able to flow easily from adult to 
children's materials and back again with ease; a feat not usually required of 
specialists in other services. 

Promotion for youth services librarians generally means changing the 
job and leaving the specialty. I have often felt that there should be a place 
for advancement for persons who are expert in an area, but who do not 
choose to become supervisors. We are all familiar with the Peter Principle 
of advancement: it is almost a truism that the best person at the activity is 
not necessarily the best supervisor. We must begin to recognize the value of 
a highly skilled and trained children's or young adult librarian. These 
folks are worth their weight in platinum. Why can't public libraries 
develop a plan which could have a multitude of steps in the salary range of, 
say, 10 to 15 with advancement based on continuing education classes, 
workshops, conference attendance, and/ or publication. Public schools 
have similar plans which allow teachers to advance through a deep salary 
range. I don't know of any public libraries that have attempted such a 
system, but it surely can be worked on from existing educational parallels. 

As I look at what I consider to be promotable qualifications, I am ever 
drawn to the skills, knowledge, and abilities I see exhibited by competent 
youth services librarians. When I consider what I want to see in a branch 
supervisor, I look for a person who can deal with the community, who will 
speak out, who has a basic understanding of budget, who understands the 
local neighborhood and the library system, who can plan ahead, who 
enjoys working with people, and who is eager to forge ahead. Do you 
recognize any of your knowledge, skills, and abilities in what I just said? 
Do you try to be a part of the overall library system? Do you contribute to 
the myriad of committees and efforts that are taking place in your library? I 
believe that advancement of competent children's and young adult librar- 
ians will serve us well in the long run, putting people in charge who 
understand and support youth services. 

I firmly believe that we must be proactive if we are to get the kind of 
continuing education we need and want. If what you feel is important to 
you is not there seek it out. Investigate all the resources at your disposal. 
Talk to your colleagues and see if your system might be willing to do some 
in-house work and make suggestions as to the continuing education 
subjects in which you are interested. Monitor the activities of your local 
library association, your state association, and ALA. If you identify a 
course that you wish to take, be prepared to show how that course will help in 
your daily work (if you wish your library to send you and/ or give you release 
time to attend). Also be prepared to share what you learn with your colleagues. 

Management of Youth Services 25 

It is important to avoid attending the same kind of workshop or 
program year after year. It is tempting to attend the author luncheons, 
storytelling workshops, or booktalking sessions. I also know and under- 
stand how stimulating and refreshing they are and how you can return to 
your library re-energized, renewed, and revitalized. However, I submit that 
much can also be gained from things outside one's specialty. Workshops 
and courses on time management, budgeting, supervision, and evaluation 
will also give fresh insights and new approaches. You can adapt what you 
learn to your specific situation. 

A brief word here about adaptability. Adaptation, in my opinion, is 
one of the great skills librarians possess. Background and training allow us 
to examine what others do and organize the activity to suit various situa- 
tions. Concrete examples of this can be seen in the use of paperback book 
racks, in use of graphics, in the design of open spaces, and in the ease with 
which we become accurate reflectors of community's needs. I have seen 
librarians examine literature racks in a bank carefully and then create an 
adaptation for the library that works better. It is not unusual for young 
adult librarians to take a commercial product and fix it so it works for 
them. It is not only those obvious adaptative skills that are impressive, but 
also the constant search for better ways and improvements that has always 
convinced me that this profession is much more than the sum of all its 
parts. It is also one of the reasons that the average library is the best 
managed department in a city, county, or district. 

I've said this before today and now I say it again. No one blows your 
horn accurately but you. You know all these things already. We live in an 
age of assertion, an age of self, and an age of proactivity. It is important that 
one is assertive in support of your own efforts and in support of the client 
group served. No one else can do it better; few others will do it at all. It is 
vital that management be informed of how great your service is and how 
wonderfully you perform your duties and meet your objectives. It is also 
important that youth services coordinators become part of the library's 
management team and take part in the decision-making process. 

Social Implications 

As I began to think about the social implications inherent in the 
management of youth services today, I thought it would be a breeze. After 
all, don't we always love to discuss philosophy of services, the good that 
these services provide, and the sheer joy with which these services are 
provided? I have decided that perhaps that breeze could be closer to hot air 
and that indeed it is time to take a new look, participate in a new vision, 
and bring ourselves up to speed with tomorrow. 

Life in the fast lane typifies the society of the 1980s. Concorde jets 

26 Managers and Missionaries 

decrease travel time between continents. Tape recorders can speed up 
speech so we can listen faster. Fast forward and rewind buttons are used 
constantly. Commercials break concentration patterns into twelve minute 
segments and batter the senses with ten second messages selling images and 
not products. Political leaders are packaged and sold like breakfast cereals, 
and no one takes time to discuss the real issues. The facade has become the 
reality. Individuals feel powerless and impotent. Automation controls 
institutions that have major impacts on life. 

It is easy to focus on the difficulties of twentieth-century life and the 
United States in particular. It is also easy to refuse to acknowledge them. 
Neither path is fruitful. Neither path affords a way to make the best 
possible of the best available. 

Librarianship is a service profession. It is a profession which enables 
us to use our developed skills to empower and enrich others. Librarianship 
is a profession which opens doors, shares knowledge, and makes informa- 
tion public. We are knowledge brokers in the best and most positive sense. 
We are not power brokers. That does not, however, make us weak. The 
profession has the capacity to utilize valuable information for the public 
good. We need to develop ways and means to ensure that the public always 
has access to the information and resources it needs. That is truly the 
dilemma this service profession faces today. 

I am inordinately proud of us. I never cease marveling at our ability, 
our consistency, our intellectual athleticism, and our resiliency in the face 
of threats and cutbacks. 

Librarianship is also a nurturing profession. It stands for self- 
development, continual learning, individual achievement, and personal 
curiosity. Youth services librarians continually demonstate those nurtur- 
ing skills within bureaucracies. The guidance, encouragement, enthusi- 
asm, involvement, and assistance given to youth through their libraries 
and their librarians bodes well for the future. 

Back to the future and its social implications. As nurturers and service 
providers, as guides and enthusiasts, librarianship now stands at the gates 
of tomorrow. Whether we can make the roads clear for youth to advance 
easily will determine youth service librarians' value, validity, and viability. 

Discussions must take place about the nature of. resource sharing as it 
applies to children, to school libraries, and to children's materials. It is not 
at all uncommon to see that children and juvenile materials are excluded 
from interlibrary loan processes. When the formation of multitype library 
networks are discussed, school libraries are usually the last to be included. 
Generally schools are last-in because of costs, decentralization, lack of staff, 
and an often perceived lack of interest in the resources they can share. 

The changes that affect society affect youth. How do we manage 
information services for youth in the waning days of the twentieth century? 

Management of Youth Services 27 

How do we assure that young people have access to the information needed 
in this era of electronic transfer and storage of information on electronic 
databases? Do young people even need them? It is critical that the informa- 
tion needs of clients are understood. We need to be aware of how young 
people obtain and use information. As more information changes from 
print to electronic storage, we must address the needs of students at all 
levels and the costs of accessing the information that they need to acquire. 
Fees for service can make it impossible for children and young people to get 
desired data. 

Children and young adults are creatures of their times. It is impossible 
to deny the impact of television on these individuals. It is also important 
that we recognize that a generation raised on television and computers 
reacts differently than one brought up without the furniture that stares 
back and without the appliance that interacts electronically. 

I do not advocate tossing out tried and true traditional patterns of 
services or approaches to children's literature and interest in quality and 
the importance of the oral tradition of storytelling. I also believe that the 
level and type of library service we give to children and young people is not 
merely important to us; it is critical to their development and to the 
nation's future. 

I lay before you a challenge. Assist the American Library Association 
to recognize and develop an agenda for the twenty-first century. This 
agenda will help the profession of young adult librarians to develop new 
service patterns for today's youth which will serve tomorrow's adult. I call 
upon the leadership of ALA's Youth Divisions ALSC, AASL, and 
YASD to begin a triple barreled approach to determine a road map which 
will help chart the course and begin to prepare for the third millenium. 

Let us examine the status of youth services today, plan what it should 
be for tomorrow, recognize what changes have to be made, look at new 
service patterns, develop mission statements and goals, see how these affect 
library services at all levels, and provide the ALA with a position and a 
philosophy. I see this beginning with youth and then becoming broad 
based and truly representative of library services at all levels. This study 
must begin with youth services since these are the first to handle the 
diversity and complexity of the changing society through our children. 

Let us walk down these new avenues together and begin to answer the 
questions that are only now being formulated. I know that it must be done, 
and I know that together we can do it. 


Children's Services Consultant 

Monroe County Library System 

Rochester, New York 

Design of Youth Services 

How will the public library or school media center's program of service 
relate to the changing needs of youth? Take the word design how do you 
interpret it? As the grand scheme of things, the master plan, a schematic, a 
blueprint? A blueprint is a detailed specific set of guidelines for creating a 
building from paper to brick. For the purpose of this discussion, the 
concept of a blueprint will be used as an approach to designing youth 
services for a specific situation. 

When a blueprint concept was selected for this presentation, actual 
blueprints were examined to ascertain the areas and specific components 
for a building. They include: elevations, roof plans, foundations, plumb- 
ing, mechanics, electrical, or source of energy. Use this approach to ener- 
gize your thinking of designing service with six designated areas. Instead of 
citing areas identified as the living room, kitchen, bedroom, etc. for a 
household building, six areas are identified with specif ic functions which, 
when aligned in place with each other, comprise a total children's and 
young adult library service facility. They are: 

Communication Center In Touch 

Reflections Room of Mirrors Image 

Information Retrieval Center Access 

Library-Den-Study Literacy, education 

Energy Center Pulse, power, programs 

Community Hub Outreach, community involvement 

Communication Center 

A center of communication means being in touch with your counter- 
part school or public librarian, parents, teachers, library administrators, 
trustees, and community agencies. How many times a year do you meet 
with your school or public librarian, have lunch together, send memos to 
each other, forward project plans, trade reading lists, share books and 
equipment, or present programs jointly? 



Managers and Missionaries 


Figure 1. Design for Youth Service 

Do you offer parents evening and weekend programs on how to 
parent, sessions on child abduction, programs on new books for all ages, 
computer courses where parent and child are enrolled together, programs 
on how to pick a nursery school or summer camp? Youth services librar- 
ians must also be in touch with teachers. This involves honoring requests 
for assignments and reading lists and providing specially-planned pro- 
grams on a topic such as science fairs. 

Youth services librarians must also be in touch with the administra- 
tion of the library. To make the administration an advocate and supporter 

Design of Youth Services 31 

of youth services, they must be informed of what is taking place, how 
services are being provided, and what is needed to meet the community's 
needs. Constant reminders should be made to administrators of how the 
children's department makes them and the library look good. Submit 
monthly reports, send selected new books once a month for administrators 
to see, provide anecdotes for the board, and report to the board on a special 
program with a minimum appearance of once a year. 

Another group to keep in touch with is trustees. Have you taken them 
on a tour of the children's area or sent them copies of any booklists you've 
prepared? Do you know their names so you can greet them personally? Are 
you demonstrating in a positive, professional way that the library is not 
just a babysitting service for children? If the library's program of service is 
not up to standard, the best chance of raising it is to court the trustees. 

Other agencies serving parents and youth are also important in keep- 
ing in touch with. You need to know what they are doing, and they need to 
be aware of the library. Have you applied jointly for grant funds to under- 
write a project? Have you discussed a joint strategy for sponsoring a program? 

Yes, all this sounds like you are doing it all. Even though communica- 
tion is defined as being two-way, your communication signals have to be 
stronger and more frequent to guarantee a return of even 25 percent. 

Communication is your form of commercial. It's more than public 
relations. It's a way of telling what you have to offer and selling your 
service. Think of your communication center as the hub with the spokes 
sending out signals to the school librarian, teachers, parents, children, 
administration, and agencies. 

The reverse holds true for school media specialists. Are you in touch 
with your counterpart? Are you in touch with the parents of your students? 
What service are you providing for them? Are you in touch with teachers? 
Do they know what you can do for them? Are you in touch with your 
administration? Aside from all the reports you're required to submit, have 
you sent the administration one memo citing an especially rewarding 
project that took place in the media center or sent a photo of a child shown 
achieving a particular level of success with a computer program or learn- 
ing kit for the school bulletin board? 

Another group to communicate with are school board members. Do 
you know who they are? At an open house, have you targeted a packet of ma- 
terials for them or a bookmark with their names done in computer graphics? 

Service to children is the cornerstone of public library service and 
school education. We are creating the library users of tomorrow, the voting 
adults who pull the lever for library funding and school bond issues, and 
the future contributors to the community, state, and beyond. Communica- 
tion is your form of commercial. Use it to sell your product i.e., library 

32 Managers and Missionaries 

Reflections Room of Mirrors 

What kind of image do we convey within the profession, to other 
professions, and to ourselves? Numerous publications have pressed the 
point that it is not sufficient for children's and young adult specialists to 
just have skills for working with young people. They must also have 
training in managerial skills and must be seen and perceived as managers. 
Every children's specialist serves as a manager on two separate levels. One 
level covers the responsibilities of providing, maintaining, and utilizing a 
collection of materials either in the school or public library. These are the 
day-to-day activities involved in managing a children's library department 
(Cummins, 1980, pp. 7-10). 

The second level of management is the children's specialist as a 
supervisor and a member of the management team. It is at this level, 
regardless of the size of the staff or library, that the children's librarian has a 
function and responsibility as part of the overall decision-making process 
that governs the library and its service. This means that you must be able to 
present your program of service in terms of goals and objectives and learn 
to use statistics to make a case; you must be able to present a budget in terms 
the director can use, in terms that governmental forces want to hear, and in 
terms that express your needs and programs convincingly. You need to be 
able to make a public presentation, address various kinds of boards, and 
talk in terms that a particular group will understand and nod in 

You need to be politically savvy. The board or council as a whole 
determines your budget but individual members make up that board. Who 
knows if the father of one of your preschool children might be vice-mayor 
and that subtle reinforcement of the positive aspects of library programs 
could eventually translate into funds. The same is true for the school media 
specialist. Know the members of the Board of Education. The election or 
appointment of a librarian or Friend of the Library could provide benefi- 
cial support. 

To keep your image polished requires feeling and looking alert and 
energized. Everyone needs stimulation to keep abreast, to be perceptive, and 
to be invigorated, and that requires continuing education. Reading journals 
and talking to peers and other librarians will provide new ideas but not to 
the extent and stimulation that workshops, conferences, institutes, and 
in-service training will. 

Continuing to learn after two or twenty-two years on the job is a 
measure of professional attitude and commitment to the profession. In- 
volvement in library associations is important. Just paying dues is not 
sufficient in terms of presenting image. Involvement builds pride in being 
a librarian and a youth specialist. 

Design of Youth Services 33 

Information Retrieval Center 

Information retrieval requires access. A multitude of information is 
stored in the center how and when may young people retrieve it, and how 
do you as the librarian interface with it? 

The first way to provide access to information is by eliminating 
unseen barriers. Are children able to use and borrow materials from any 
section of the library? Does their library card restrict them by age or grade to 
numbers or kinds of items they may use or borrow? Are children included 
in interlibrary loan (ILL) programs? Are there any rules local or state 
that eliminate them from being able to request materials on ILL? If so, they 
are being denied service. 

The second way to retrieve information is by format. Can children use 
the computer in the library, can they request database searches, are they 
allowed the use of the microfilm reader-printer? When automation deci- 
sions are made on the administrative level, the youth specialist must insist 
on equal treatment and equal consideration for young people. 

A third aspect of access is physical. For young children, can they reach 
the top shelves, especially if the juvenile nonfiction is intershelved with 
adult materials? Are steps, counters, and furniture scaled appropriately for 
primary age children? If not, when renovations, remodeling, or new build- 
ings are planned, it is incumbent upon the children's librarian and school 
media specialist to provide input to those people making those types of 
decisions to "design" with children in mind, including placement of the 
children's area. Access is an important consideration. Children must have 
it, otherwise they are inhibited in their growth, their learning, and their 
attitude toward libraries. 

With spoken and visual formats of information expanding broadly, 
another element of access comes into play. Adele Fasick, in "Moving into 
the Future without Losing the Past," talks about children's need to hear 
language and speak language as a precursor to understanding and assimi- 
lating printed language and words. Background and experience determine 
differing responses by children to film or print and to ways in which 
information is learned and received. Librarians need to be able to assess 
and evaluate which format is best for a specific child (Fasick 1984, pp. 

Then there is access to information for the youth services librarian. 
Another communication link could be formed between the school librar- 
ian and the public librarian by ordering materials via computer. If the 
public or school librarian can punch up a screen to see if a particular title 
has been ordered, that is access to information that translates into wise 
collection management. 

If this is not feasible, does the public librarian send reports or records 

34 Managers and Missionaries 

of selection lists or new books and nonprint acquired to the school person? 
Does the school media specialist in turn send lists of new software, equip- 
ment, and project assignments to the public library person? 

You as the librarian are the advocate for access to information for 
children. Also remember that access to information for you is another 
interface with the whole information center. 

Library Den Study 

Literacy and education as a broad topic encompasses print literacy, 
visual literacy, computer literacy, and technology literacy. To keep up 
with children, librarians must be computer literate. Children are as com- 
fortable using computers in various facets of their educational life as well 
as their home life as we were with typewriters. There is a natural affinity 
between students and microcomputers. The public library and the school 
library should serve as links between the natural desire of the child to learn 
about his world and the equipment necessary to accomplish it (Lintner, 
1985, pp. 91-93). We need to know how to operate a computer or word 
processor and know what computers can do for us. 

But that alone is not sufficient. The rate at which technology is 
changing and advancing is extremely fast. It is not conceivable that an 
individual children's librarian can keep pace with or on top of the newest 
format, the latest development, or the 8000th model of a piece of equip- 
ment, but it is conceivable and necessary that the youth librarian be 
aware of what is developing, knowing that change is constant, and being 
alert to updates of technology through journals and conferences. 

Of course, we as librarians support literacy, but you must decide what 
is the library's role in helping with the literacy problem. Is it as simple as 
providing space for tutors to work with students, or should you be involved 
more directly? Philosophies differ on this issue so the critical thing is to 
determine the extent of the library's or system's responsibility. Provision of 
materials for both children and adults is basic and so is a congenial 
atmosphere. Is staff time also made available for them to work with tutors 
or student groups? 

Actually, most of the programs children's librarians plan have literacy 
at the core e.g., by fostering a love of books and stories, relating books 
with activities, exploring films and books together, sponsoring reading 
clubs, and so on. 

Other programs that can be used to visibly promote reading in the 
community are read-a-thons with local celebrities, media coverage for the 
March of Dimes Reading Champions, and other agency campaigns. Learn 
to use any connections as features of literacy e.g., local people on award 
committees, a local sports figure to hand out prizes or certificates at library 

Design of Youth Services 35 

activities, pictures of the mayor reading with his/her grandchildren or 
holding a favorite children's book. Use all of the available national promo- 
tions and add a local twist. 

At the recent AASL conference in Minneapolis, William Bennett, the 
U.S. Secretary of Education, called librarians the ambassadors of literacy. 
He cited the most important responsibility of elementary schools is to 
teach children how to read and become active and avid readers (Flagg, 1986, 
pp. 737-739). 

Dr. Seuss put it more succinctly in the new book, Once Upon a Time, 
published for the 20th anniversary of Reading is Fundamental: "The more 
you read, / the more things you know. / The more that you learn, / the 
more places you'll go" (Dr. Seuss, 1986, p. 41). Recognize that unless there 
is a commitment to literacy, there may be fewer and fewer readers to serve. 

Energy Center 

The energy center is the power behind your service, the pulse of 
activity that energizes program offerings. It is the "life" of the children's 
library in the community. The energy must come from you, the children's 
librarian, and from the programs you plan. 

If you have had a Saturday morning film program for years and years 
and the attendance has dwindled from 175 kids to 25, that should tell you 
something. For many reasons this program no longer has the appeal it 
previously did the over-familiarity of 16 mm films as a medium, passive 
instead of active programming, and a program format that has become 
routine and dull. Drop it or change it and in its place try something that 
involves children. All programming does not have to be passive. 

Try having children make their own films. With very simple equip- 
ment, kids can draw on film, or create animation with live characters or 
clay figures. Do a whole animation series. Have children make flipbooks 
and move on to other animation forms. A show could be presented at the 
end of the series and maybe a local camera shop would sponsor the event or 
supply the equipment. 

Expand your programming with other age levels. Intergenerational 
programs that use senior citizens with elementary age children can bring 
new life to both groups. Craft workshops and reading skill groups are 
examples, but the possibilities are extensive. In exchange, have the kids 
teach computer skills to the seniors. A good example of tapping the talents 
of senior citizens to use with children is a program created in Iowa called 
"From Sheep to Shirt." Members of a local weavers guild brought looms, 
two craftswomen brought their spinning wheels and dye pots, and a 4-H 
student brought her sheep to demonstrate sheep shearing. The occasion 
provided a first-hand experience and understanding of the fabric process 

36 Managers and Missionaries 

for the children who attended (Irving, 1985, pp. 82-84). The goodwill and 
support that is gained from this approach is immeasurable support you 
can't buy but is worth money on a bond issue. 

Expand your programming to other agencies and institutions. Con- 
sider jointly sponsoring a program with the art or science museum. Use 
special exhibits for program inspiration. A dinosaur exhibit could spring- 
board into a program of dinosaur models/ stories/ riddles, or a medieval 
festival at the gallery would be perfect for dragon tales told in both 
locations. A unique project could take place by applying jointly for 
funding from Arts Councils, Poets-in-Residence, etc. What programs can 
you plan with the local Association for the Education of Young Children, 

Expand your thinking about programs. Look for new ideas and topics 
that will be featured by other organizations, ways of underwriting projects 
that need funds, and initiate communitywide events such as read-a-thons 
or cosponsorship of an author-illustrator with a bookstore or PTA. 

Bring technology into your programming particularly in the schools. 
Use interactive video to involve an entire school building in a project on 
reliving history or taking a trip into space. Connecting a videodisc, video- 
tape, filmstrip, or slide projector to a microcomputer allows the student to 
make interactive decisions involved with a scenario (Troutner, 1983, pp. 
337-340). Think of the possibilities. 

Does your school or library have cable access and capabilities? Besides 
routine school newscasts, instructional demonstrations, and story pro- 
grams, how about having students present book reviews on the air and 
running them as spot announcements during the day or in the school 
cafeteria at noon time? 

The Energy Center is where things happen. It is the pulse, the power 
source that gives your library vitality. Make it come alive with creative, fun, 
and involving activities. 

Community Hub 

To get community involvement you need to know your community 
i.e., percentages of population by age, ethnic groups, diversity, and loca- 
tion. What do demographics tell you about the community? What is the 
birthrate in your area? What ethnic group is having the most babies? 

The 1980 census reveals the average white in America is thirty-one 
years old, the average black twenty-five, and the average Hispanic only 
twenty-two, which shows a definite population momentum for minorities. 
It indicates that the average Hispanic female is just moving into the peak 
childbearing years while the average white female is moving out of them 
(Hodgkinson, 1985, p. 3). 

Design of Youth Services 37 

This is why California now has a majority of minorities in its elemen- 
tary schools, while Texas schools are 46 percent minority, and half the 
states have public school populations that are more than 25 percent non- 
white, while all of the twenty-five largest city school systems have minority 
majorities (Hodgkinson, 1985, p. 3). 

The 1980 census indicates that 59 percent of the children born in 1983 
will live with only one parent before they reach eighteen that becomes the 
normal childhood experience. Of every 100 children born today, twelve 
will be born out of wedlock, forty will be born to parents who divorce 
before the child is eighteen, five will be born to parents who separate, two 
will be born to parents of whom one will die before the child is eighteen, 
and forty-one will reach age eighteen "normally" (Hodgkinson, 1985, p. 

You don't exist without your community. Libraries are next to Mom 
and apple pie, but without people children and adults you have no 
business. So service is the key. Do you have a large number of families 
where both parents work? Has attendance at the regular morning story 
hour dropped because of few children or because those children are in 
day-care centers? Demographics indicate that the number of children 
eligible for Head Start type of programs will increase in the next decade as 
the number of children in poverty continues to expand. That number of 
eligible children has increased by one-third while the funding for the 
programs remained the same as in 1985. How does that affect preschool 
services in schools and public libraries? Should an evening story hour 
program be offered to those parents? Should the public library plan weekly 
sessions with Head Start, should the Head Start groups meet in the public 
library or in the school library, where will Head Start programs get 
materials and books without sufficient funds? 

Reading parents have reading children. Libraries should foster pro- 
grams for parents, informational and educational programs to help them 
"parent" e.g., how to choose day-care facilities, how to choose educa- 
tional toys, discussions of quality videos that are available for purchase, 
computer instruction with their kids, cable TV programs on good books, 
etc. Consider parent-child learning centers as an alternative approach to 
programming for preschoolers. The learning centers are special places in 
the library where parents and children interact together. The tactile expe- 
riences, "hands-on" art processes, music, and physical activities are 
designed to enhance the development of prereading skills and directly 
involve the parent in the learning process (Rogers & Herrin, 1986, pp. 
343-355). The benefits are parent education, service to children, and a 
positive attitude toward the library. 

Other programs and services that reach out into the community are 
read-a-thons with local bookstores and local celebrities, summer reading 

38 Managers and Missionaries 

programs for which schools loan copies of their books to public libraries 
for the summer, reading competitions that reward quality reading in 
liaison with the schools, a holiday activity program on a Saturday for 
children to allow parents to go shopping without them. 

The library should be seen as a focal point of the community, provid- 
ing service and responding to its needs. A major factor in families is the 
high percentage of women in the work force. The number of latchkey 
children has shown a major increase and will continue to rise. There are at 
least 4 million school age latchkey children in the United States (Hodgkin- 
son, 1985, p. 8). Where are they after school in your community? 

Susan Rosenzweig, information manager for the Center for Early 
Adolescence, has identified criteria for developing responsive after-school 
programs for young adolescents that are what children and parents want. 
The successful programs use community resources, invite parent partici- 
pation, provide staff training, utilize interagency cooperation, and demon- 
strate longevity in the community. They are proof that energetic and 
committed adults can meet the challenge of aiding and promoting the 
healthy development of adolescents (Center for Early Adolescence, 1983, 
pp. 37-47). 

Agencies are part of the community hub. Can your library assist with 
providing collections of books, provide training to leaders and staff in 
areas like puppet making and how to share and read a book, or write a 
newsletter every several months with titles of new preschool books avail- 
able at the public library? 

For teachers and school librarians, how about an annual open house 
to talk about the best children's books of the year? The books the public 
librarian is "selling" to kids are the ones the school librarian needs to know 
since children may be asking for them. If the public librarian prepares a 
booklist of gift books, it should be sent to the school librarian. Even better, 
almost every school district has a newsletter that is sent to parents and 
taxpayers. The school and public librarian should jointly write an article 
on books to give as gifts to children. Corresponding displays are a good 
reinforcement. Share your enthusiasm for books by helping teachers bring 
books into the classroom, helping school librarians keep current with new 
titles, and helping parents select books to buy with recommended 

These people are paying the taxes that support your library, school or 
public. Plan your service to benefit them and involve them. 


Does all of this sound like you're expected to be six people rolled into 
one? Yes, it does. The truth of the matter is that the children's librarian and 

Design of Youth Services 39 

school media specialist are the Renaissance people of the profession. You 
are expected to know how to run the children's department, know the 
children's materials both print and nonprint, plan programs, work at the 
adult reference desk to help cover the schedule (or fill in in the classroom), 
know the best-sellers and adult reference materials, understand computers 
and automation, provide outreach to the community, know how to deal 
with teenagers, have competent managerial skills, often serve as second in 
command, and smile as you try to cram sixty hours of work into a thirty- 
five to forty hour work week. Is the adult librarian expected to know 
children's books? Is a teacher expected to fill in in the school library? Who 
covers the children's section when you are not there most likely a page or 
an aide? Is the director or supervisor expected to have specialist skills as 
well as administrative ones? The answers are no. Nor is this inequity likely 
to change. 

So how are you supposed to find time to "design" youth services? You 
make time (remember, youth specialists can do anything). If you don't 
have a vision of service in mind and goals in sight, your library's service to 
children is apt to be underfunded, unused, uninviting, or unappreciated. 

Hugh Atkinson, in his article "Strategies for Change: Part I," stated: 
"The prime thing to remember when trying to plan, perform, or simply 
survive library activities in the next decades is that the value of library 
successes comes from meeting the needs of the patrons. Those patrons are 
changing their attitudes, their economic status, their needs. When our 
patrons change, then we must change too" (Atkinson, 1984, p 58). 

Take a step backward and take a hard look at your current program of 
service. Use demographics to determine the changes that are shaping your 
future community, the next decade of children and parents, and the decade 
after that. What are those changes telling you about the needs of the 

Stop and look at the pie plan, implement, and evaluate in terms of 
these six areas: ( 1 ) communication center, (2) reflections room of mirrors, 
(3) information retrieval center, (4) library den study, (5) energy center, 
and (6) community hub. Are you in touch; does your image shine; are all 
avenues of access open to you and the youth you serve; what is your 
library's role in literacy; is there life, vitality, and energy lighting up your 
library; and do you know your community and are you involving them in 
using the library? As long as all of the pieces are in place and aligned with 
each other, you have a blueprint, a design for service. You are establishing 
the significance of libraries in an individual's life and the community's 
existence. The library youth specialist is the Renaissance person of tomor- 
row. Work from the past, assess the now, design the future. 

40 Managers and Missionaries 


Center for Early Adolescence. (1983). 3-6 p.m.: after-school programming for early adoles- 
cence. Top of the News, 40, 37-47. 

Cummins, J. (1980). Management in children's services. The Bookmark, 39, 7-10. 

Fasick, A. M. (1984). Moving into the future without losing the past: Children's services in the 
information age. Top of the News, 40, 405-413. 

Flagg, G. (1986). In the news: "no adversary," says Bennett. American Libraries, 17, 737-739. 

Hodgkinson, H. L. (1985). All one system: Demographics of education- kindergarten through 
graduate school. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership. 

Irving, J. (1985). From sheep to shirt: Intergenerational approaches to library programs. Illi- 
nois Libraries, 67, 82-84. 

Lintner, B. (1985). Computers and kids: Capitalizing on a natural compatibility. Illinois 
Libraries, 67, 91-93. 

Once upon a time.... (1986). New York: Putnam. 

Rogers, P., & Herrin, B. (1986). Parent-child learning centers: An alternative approach to li- 
brary programming for preschoolers. Top of the News, 42, 343-355. 

Troutner, J. J. (1983). The magic of interactive video. Top of the News, 39, 337-340. 

Beckman, M. (1987). Online catalog development at the University of Guelph. Library 
Trends, 35, 527-537. 

Florida Center j or Library Automation Technical Bulletin. (1986). 1(5), 3. 

Florida, Postsecondary Education Planning Commission. (1988, February 25). Automation 
and Networking for Florida Libraries, p. iv. 

Hildreth, C. R. (1987). Beyond Boolean: Designing the next generation of online catalogs. 
Library Trends, 35, 647-667. 

Linsley, L. S., et al. (1986). The future is now the online catalog. Poster Session, 19. 

Nielson, B., & Baker, B. (1987). Educating the online catalog user: A model evaluation study. 
Library Trends, 35, 571-585. 


Young Adult Services Coordinator 
Spokane Public Library 
Spokane, Washington* 

Coalition-Building: Maybe Tomorrow? 
Maybe Today! 

It's Tuesday morning at Spokane Public Library. You work your way from 
the car to the employee's entrance through thirty-five people clutching 
shopping bags. It's the annual Friends of the Library Used Book Sale. You 
can get in they have to wait until nine. They glare. You enter rather more 
quickly than usual. "Hey, Tyson! Guess what your kids were up to last 
night?" It's the maintenance man. He found the patron sunflower shell 
stash. You smile and move on not stopping to point out that last week, 
when they spoke to the city council in support of library funding, they were 
"our kids." A reference librarian shares the elevator with you. "You've got 
to do something about those teachers! I've had it with kids who have to read 
the same book twenty-five of them last night alone, all looking for some 
novel that went out of print in 1920." "Yes." you smile. "It's always hard 
when...." "I don't want sympathy. I want action!" 

In the office you reach for the phone. A call to the school is in order, 
but the director stops by first. "Nice work you did on that budget justifica- 
tion. " You begin to bask. "Excellent work for a first draft." The glow fades. 
"You will have the fleshed-out version in by five, won't you?" Oh well. 
Who needs lunch? You reach for the phone again, but the first of the young 
adult selection team drifts in. "I hope you don't expect to see many high 
school book talks this year. I just can't seem to get in the door." "Well, 
actually, there are a few other things you could try...." The collection 
development coordinator leans through the doorway. "Meeting today? 
Remember if you want the rest of your materials allocation for this year I'll 
need your order forms by this afternoon." "We're losing money?" chorus 
the rest of the staff. "But I need more D and D!" "V. C. Andrews!" "Sweet 

Christy Tyson, now Youth Services Consultant with the Alabama Public Library Service, 
was, at the time of the Allerton Conference, Young Adult Services Coordinator at Spokane 
(Washington) Public Library. 


42 Managers and Missionaries 

Valley High!" "Yes, but Nancy here has an interesting problem. How do 
you get invited to a school if your first contact doesn't work?" "I told her 
what worked for me. She just didn't want to listen." "Can't we postpone 
this until next month? I want to order replacements today." 

By late afternoon you can breathe a minute. The budget draft is 
completed. You've submitted your order forms. You've even had a minute 
to talk with a few young adults who stopped by. You pause. You reach for 
the phone. The acquisitions clerk brings back your order cards 
"Incomplete." Can't call now. It's time to search for missing ISBNs. 

You return to your office. The mail has arrived. The phone still waits, 
but it's really too late to call now. You sort through the mail. Three 
publisher's catalogs same company all addressed to you by name. An 
invitation to a Planned Parenthood Open House. You'll have to say no. It's 
the same time as your shift on the reference desk. A newsletter from the 
regional library association announcing upcoming workshops. Today the 
one on time management looks especially appealing. You check the dates. 
You hope the people who attended last week enjoyed it. You pause to curse 
your place on the routing slip. Ah, at last the latest issue of your favorite 
library journal. You open the cover, lean back, and freeze as you read the 
title of the lead article "Better Living through Coalition-Building. "You 
look at the phone. You hear the voice of your library professor echoing in 
your memory: "Good outreach is action, not reaction." The line on your 
job description comes back to haunt you: "Is responsible for interacting 
regularly with other youth-serving agencies in the community." You 
gently pound your head against the desk top. 

In reality, of course, most days are not quite so overwhelming. I do 
manage to find time to interact with school personnel, usually through 
monthly lunches, and to visit most of the youth-serving agencies in the city 
at least once a year. However, I am all too aware that there is much more 
that should be done if we are to develop a program that supports the needs 
and interests of Spokane's young people as fully as they deserve. I also 
know that even on the most hectic of days I have choices. I would like to 
think that those choices are based on the library's goals and objectives. 
However, I know that there are other factors at work for me, and, I suspect, 
for others in youth services as well. I don't find much value in harangues or 
breast-beating. Instead, I would like to step back and explore how 
coalition-building is supported or resisted by the profession. 

Coalitions are most commonly defined as groups of agencies, organi- 
zations, or individuals with different missions but with some commonality 
of concerns or interests, coming together to address those areas. Coalitions 
may be informal such as the once-a-month lunches in Spokane or may 
be highly formalized national or even international groups such as the 
Coalition for Literacy or the National Coalition Against Censorship. 

Coalition-Building 43 

Coalitions often lead to more formalized structures such as networks or 
cooperatives in which contracts are drawn, resources allocated, and mis- 
sions modified or expanded to reflect the needs of participating agencies as 
well as the new organization as a whole. 

From the earliest days of youth services in American libraries, exam- 
ples of coalition-building can be found. As early as 1896, when Anne 
Carroll Moore became head of the Children's Library at Pratt Institute in 
Brooklyn, the pattern was set. She worked intensively with settlement 
houses in the area in order to introduce children of the poor to the library 
despite restrictive policies and protectionist practices of the time. Her work 
continued through the 1920s at New York Public Library where she is 
credited with bringing thousands of children into the library, in no small 
part due to the cooperative relationships she developed with local agencies 
(Braverman, 1979, pp. 16-72). 

In 1906, New York Public Library set another early example of pio- 
neering school-public library interaction. A position was established just 
to work with schools. Branch libraries were surveyed, resources relegated, 
staff evaluated, and programs planned to address school-related needs. 
Through the 1950s this program intensified and expanded to include 
vocational and parochial schools and also began to include other agencies 
concerned with youth (Braverman, 1979, pp. 79-113). 

In Cleveland, too, the pattern of coalition-building was established 
early. By the 1940s Jean Roos, administrator of work with youth at Cleve- 
land Public Library, was active on at least twenty youth committees in the 
area. As at New York Public Library, the connection with local schools was 
strong, with the public library being responsible for providing school 
library services in the late 1800s and early 1900s. By the 1920s, the Board of 
Education had assumed responsibility for providing the quarters for 
school libraries and for materials that directly related to the curriculum, 
but the public library shared the cost of salaries and provided support 
materials, a model of joint planning that continued in one form or another 
through 1970 (Braverman 1979, pp. 116-177). 

Such models are not solitary exceptions or remnants of a bygone era. 
Indeed, the profession itself has called for and continues to call for 
coalition-building as part of every library's youth services program. 
"Young Adult Services in the Public Library" (Public Library Associa- 
tion, American Library Association [ALA], in 1960) and "Standards for 
Children's Services" (1964) both call for cooperation with schools and 
other youth-concerned agencies. The first states, "the young adult librar- 
ian should maintain contacts with all community agencies serving teen- 
agers and young adults" (Public Library Association, 1960). It goes on to 
recommend that if a forum for interaction does not exist, the library would 
do well to take the lead in establishing such a forum. "Standards for 

44 Managers and Missionaries 

Children's Services in Public Libraries" echoes this recommendation in its 
Service Objective number 6: "To serve as a social force in the community 
together with other agencies concerned with the child's welfare" (Public 
Library Association, 1964). It further advises that this responsibility be 
extended to the state and national levels as well. 

At the state level, an examination of guidelines for youth services in 
libraries, from those states that have such guidelines, reveals that the call 
for coalition-building is strong: 

From Illinois "Communication and cooperation with schools and 
other community agencies serving children should be encouraged and 
supported" (Illinois Library Association, 1978). 

From Nebraska "The local library must take advantage of the support 
available from the library system and the state library agency as well as 
cooperating with school media centers and other community agencies, 
groups and organizations in planning programs for young people" 
(Nebraska Library Commission, 1984). 

From New York "Cooperation with other local agencies serving youth 
and close working relationships with schools are essential for the public 
library to maintain community awareness.... Working with community 
agencies can help the children's librarian provide better service to chil- 
dren.... The children's librarian should establish cooperative relation- 
ships with other libraries in the community" (New York Library Associ- 
ation, 1984). 

From Ohio "Cooperation with schools, school media centers and 
community social service agencies concerned with the welfare of chil- 
dren is encouraged. A sharing and blending of skills, personnel and 
ideas will benefit all involved" (Ohio Library Association, 1984). 
From Vermont "The public library should serve as a social force in the 
community by cooperating with other agencies concerned with the 
child's welfare.. ..libraries should cooperate with other agencies in the 
community to plan and carry out library-related programs for children. 
This means the library going into the community as well as groups 
coming into the library.... There is a need for continuous communica- 
tion between the public library and schools, nursery schools and day care 
centers in order that all children benefit from the services the public li- 
brary can provide.... A library has the civic responsibility to cooperate 
with social agenices and institutions involved with education, enrich- 
ment and well-being of children in the community" (Vermont Depart- 
ment of Libraries, 1979). 

The 1985 American Library Association President's Program theme 
was "Forging Coalitions for the Public Good." Three of the eight recom- 
mendations in "Alliance for Excellence: Librarians Respond to A Nation 
at Risk" are based on intertype library cooperation. Federal funding in the 

Coalition-Building 45 

form of Library Services and Construction Act Title III grants have been 
allocated just to support interlibrary cooperation. The literature contains 
many examples of coalition-building, and most of these include a strong 
call for others to begin or increase their commitment. 

Coalition-building is firmly rooted in our professional traditions. Its 
value is reflected in virtually every document describing youth services 
from the state or national perspective. Calls for action appear regularly in 
library literature. Then coalition-building must be an established part of 
every youth services librarian's work. Yet my experiences in Spokane lead 
me to believe differently. A 1986 survey conducted in Washington State 
also indicates that coalition-building is not as widespread as we might 
assume. Of the sixty-six responding children's and young adult librarians, 
only twenty-six or 39 percent met with other youth services librarians in 
their areas to discuss issues and coordinate activities and programs with 
any regularity at all. Sixty percent had not interacted with other youth 
services librarians outside their own systems at all during the last year. 
This disparity between professional expectations and actual experiences 
demands further consideration. Each of us must ask ourselves: How do I 
feel about the importance of coalition-building in my work? Is it a high 
priority? Am I doing as much as I should? Am I doing as much as I would 
like? Do I enjoy the coalition-building I do? What do I feel are the major 
obstacles to doing more? 

In a 1986 survey, thirty-one children's and young adult services spe- 
cialists representing twenty-one states were asked similar questions. Some 
interesting perceptions were revealed. While the majority viewed 
coalition-building as the third highest priority of their youth services 
program (following collection development and reference/reader's guid- 
ance), 26 percent admitted that they were doing only "so-so" and 42 
percent saw themselves as doing "not much of anything" in terms of 
achieving success (see Appendix 1). It should be noted that, while this 
perception may seem rather grim, collective assessment of success in out- 
reach is even lower. However, that is another story. For our purposes the 
pattern is clear. My concerns are not unique. A significant portion of youth 
services librarians see themselves as doing almost all they should in such 
in-house, patron-responsive functions as collection development, reader's 
guidance, and reference, but when they move into more proactive func- 
tions such as outreach, programming, and coalition-building, our percep- 
tions of success take a decided dip. We know what we should be doing, but 
we don't do it. A number of respondents chose to add explanations for low 
success citing lack of administrative support, uncooperative staff, diffi- 
culty of planning for activities outside the library, lack of time, or 
lack of money. I have no doubt that all these factors play a very large part. 
They do for me. However, two other factors must also be considered i.e., 

46 Managers and Missionaries 

perhaps the success level is not in our administrative support but in 

Even Ferber, a library consultant and specialist in human resource 
development, lists the following as necessary for effective coalition- 

Interpersonal Communication, including contacting (establishing rapport), 
active listening (attentiveness, clarifying, paraphrasing), appropriate nonverbals 
(eye contact, body language). 

Negotiation, including data gathering, strategizing, probing, blocking attacks, 
building on others' ideas, acknowledging, constructively criticizing. 
Group Process Facilitation, including maintenance of group cohesion, getting 
the task done. 

Assertiveness and Proactive Skills, including self-initiating, self-directing, self- 

Networking Skills, including initiating contacts, convening groups, acting as 

Problem-Solving, including brainstorming, problem identification and analysis, 
action planning. 

Organizational Savvy, including knowledge of power and influence in the orga- 
nization through theory, data gathering and analysis. 

A Healthy Self Image, including good internal sense of worth, appropriate dress 
and appearance. (Ferber, personal communication, August 13, 1986) 

All of these areas even the last can be strengthened through train- 
ing, yet few are included in most library school course offerings. An 
examination of course listings from fifty-four ALA-accredited master's 
degree programs revealed that only four offer courses that might support 
students in the development of any of these skills. Clearly there is a conflict 
between professional expectations and professional training at least at 
the master's degree level. Lack of training cannot help but contribute to the 
lack of confidence which must impact both our perceived and actual 
success as coalition builders. We see ourselves as doing very well in the 
areas most commonly included in library coursework e.g., collection 
development and reference/reader's guidance. Respectively, 35 percent 
and 25 percent felt: "We are doing all we should," and 64 percent and 44 
percent gave themselves at least an above-average rating in these areas. 
However, coalition-building, one of the areas that depends on the kind of 
skills Ferber describes, was rated as highly successful by only 16 percent of 
the respondents and moderately successful by an additional 16 percent. 

An additional factor that may influence confidence levels in coalition- 
building is the nature of the organizations with which we interact. Of the 
forty-one groups with which the ALA's Young Adult Services Division 
and Association for Library Service to Children have established contact, 
37 percent represent human services professions that include interpersonal 
and organizational skills as part of their training. Not only do we lack the 
skills we need to operate with full effectiveness in coalition-building, but 

Coalition-Building 47 

we also often interact with people who are extremely skilled in just those 

Lack of training can be corrected. We can seek out training experi- 
ences that will enrich our library education. We can work with local, state, 
regional, and national groups that support continuing education. We can 
encourage library schools to offer courses that respond to our needs for 
behavioral as well as cognitive knowledge. 

The second factor that may influence effectiveness as coalition- 
builders is not a matter of training but of inclination. Comments included 
in the survey responses suggested a number of reasons why coalition- 
building was less than successful. However I know that I have used some or 
all of those reasons to justify not doing things I didn't want to do, and I 
have managed to do things I really felt were important despite some or 
occasionally all the factors mentioned by survey respondents. In that 
typical hectic day described earlier, I made choices to respond to adminis- 
trative deadlines, to take time to talk with kids, and to open mail. I chose to 
accept my floorwork schedule as nonnegotiable. I made these decisions and 
by doing so did not respond to other possibilities including two that would 
have directly supported coalition-building. Something in me resisted mak- 
ing those actions top priority. It might well have been an almost subcon- 
scious response to system goals, but it also might have been personal 

Personal preference yours and mine can and does enter into our 
decision-making processes. It is vital that we know ourselves well enough 
to detect this influence. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a tool that can 
be helpful in just this area. Based on Jung's theory of psychological types, 
it measures perception and judgment the way we look at things and the 
way we go about making decisions based on what is perceived. It is, of 
course, only an indication of tendencies. However, we usually develop 
more skill with those processes we prefer. We may have a preference for 
using the right or left hand, but we can and do use either or both when 
needed. The four areas of preference measured in the Myers-Briggs Type 
Indicator, then, are: 

1 . perception directed toward the outer world of people and things (called 
Extraversion or E) or toward the inner world of theories and ideas 
(Introversion or /); 

2. perception based on known facts and the directly observable (called 
Sensing or S) or on possibilities and relationships (Intuition or N); 

3. judgment based on analysis and logic (called Thinking or T) or on 
personal values (Feeling or F); 

4. judgment in a planned, orderly way (called Judging or /) or in a 
flexible, spontaneous way (Perceptive or P) (Myers 8c McCaulley, 1985, 
pp. 1-5, 11-29). 

48 Managers and Missionaries 

While all these factors certainly influence how we approach coalition- 
building, the first, which considers our preference for perceiving through 
interaction with people and things rather than through theories and ideas, 
seems most significant in determining any personal resistance we may 
have. Myers-Briggs surveyed hundreds of people in a variety of careers and, 
based on 267 librarians, found a marked preference for introversion more 
than 60 percent (Myers & McCaulley, 1985, pp. 244-92). However, since I 
have heard many of my colleagues express on more than one occasion that 
youth services specialists may well be more people-oriented than librarians 
as a whole, I decided to explore this further. 

Twelve youth services specialists at Spokane Public Library agreed to 
take the Myers-Briggs instrument and share the results. Each of us reacted 
differently to the experience. Most were curious and gained appreciation 
for ourselves and our colleagues through the process. For some the expe- 
rience was a real revelation personally as well as professionally. Comments 
ranged from: "No wonder I get so tired on school visit days!" to "I can't 
believe it! I finally know why I'm different from the people around me. 
And it's not because there is something wrong with me!" Now we often 
describe our actions in terms of the results, as in "Get Marshall to explain 
this. You're sounding too W for me." We are coming to cherish differences 
and to capitalize on them. 

However, in combination, a clear and somewhat frightening picture 
emerged. Of the twelve specialists who took the instrument, 75 percent 
scored in the / range, 75 percent in the N range, and 75 percent in the F 
range with an equal division between P and /. At Spokane Public Library, 
according to the Myers-Briggs results, youth services staff is more con- 
cerned with .possibilities and relationships than with facts. We base deci- 
sions more on personal values than on impersonal analysis and logic. We 
feel more comfortable in the inner world of theories and ideas than in the 
outer world of people and things, even more so than librarians in general. 
No wonder we have such difficulty in coalition-building. Activities based 
on interaction and dependent on active pursual of contacts are not our 
preferred styles. Myers-Briggs characterizes the / personality by predicting 
that such people would find work .with theories and ideas energizing and 
work with people and things enervating. However, this insight allows us 
to do something about it. We can consciously put more energy into those 
activities we know are not typical of our preferred style. We can acknowl- 
edge and turn to those that operate from different styles for strength and 
support. We can seek out training opportunities that build skills and 
increase confidence in areas that are not our most preferred. We can 
continue to explore our own interests, values, and skills so that we will be 
as aware as possible of the factors that influence our work. 

Coalition-Building 49 

In summary, coalition-building has been a long-standing tradition in 
library service to youth. It is included as a priority in virtually every set of 
state and national guidelines. Calls for action are frequent in national 
forums. Yet our perceptions of success in this area are surprisingly low. 
Two factors that might affect this have been examined: lack of training in 
interpersonal and organizational skills; and personality qualities of indi- 
vidual librarians that resist proactive, people-based activities. Yet neither 
of these factors is insurmountable. Instead, I recommend that as individu- 
als and as a profession we: 
seek out training experiences in interpersonal and organizational skills 

to supplement library school education; 
actively work for continuing education experiences at the local, state, 

and national levels that enhance these skills; 
work for more responsive library school curricula; 
reconsider recruitment of library school students; 
encourage library systems to provide for human resource development 

training and support; and 
accept the challenge of self-knowledge and learn to value the differences 

in attitudes, values, and skills of our colleagues. 

More research is necessary in both issues discussed in this presenta- 
tion. My inquiries were limited and basic, but the tendencies uncovered 
have significance for current and projected training and exploration. Who 
we are as real or potential coalition-builders is not solely determined by 
who we claim to be in policies and guidelines. We are also formed by our 
training and by our own natures. In Spokane we have begun to learn more 
about who we are and how we act and interact in order to increase our 
effectiveness at work. We have made a commitment to continue this 
exploration. However we must all commit as individuals and as a profes- 
sion to honest consideration of how differences in skills and personalities 
impact our actions. When this happens, I predict the next survey that 
comes our way will be marked: "We are doing all we should." 

50 Managers and Missionaries 


Summary of a 1986 Survey of Youth Services Managers 

August 18, 1986 
Dear Colleague, 

In preparing a presentation for the upcoming Allerton Institute I am looking into youth 
services managers' attitudes toward delivery of service. This is nothing scientific at this point. 
I am curious only about general trends that might exist. Please take a minute to mark the 
following scales and send me your responses by August 31. A self-addressed envelope 
is enclosed for your use. Remember I'm looking for your impressions as to how well your 
system is doing. All responses will be kept confidential. THANK YOU FOR YOUR 

Christy Tyson 
Spokane Public Library 

1. Our system gives collection development for youth 

745% 3% 729% 10% 13% 7 

high medium low 

2. Our system gives reader's guidance/reference to youth 

7 25% 19% 7 28% 9% 19% 7 

3. Our system gives in-house programming to youth 

7 21% 6% 7 17% 6% 50% 7 

4. Our system gives coalition-building with other youth-serving agencies 

13% 723% 10% 32% 7 

5. Our system gives outreach to youth (booktalks, school visits, etc.) 

726% 13% 7 16% 3% 42% 7 

6. In the area of COALITION-BUILDING, 

7 16% 16% 726% 0% 42% 7 

We are doing so-so We aren't doing 

all we should. much of anything. 


735% 29% 7 19% 3% 13% 7 

8. In the area of IN-HOUSE PROGRAMMING, 

719% 19% 716% 10% 35% 7 

Coaliton-Building 51 

9. In the area of OUTREACH, 

710% 23% 723% 


7 25% 19% 7 34% 

50 surveys sent to 25 different states 
31 responses from 21 different states 

52 Managers and Missionaries 


Braverman, M. (1979). Youth, society, and the public library. Chicago: ALA. 

Illinois Library Association, Children's Librarians' Section, Ad Hoc Committee on Stan- 
dards for Children's Library Service. (1978). Guidelines for public library service to 
children. Pamphlet, Illinois Library Association, Springfield. 

Myers, I. B., & McCaulley, M. H. (1985). Manual, a guide to the development and use of the 
Myers-Briggs type indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. 

Nebraska Library Commission. (1984). Guidelines for young people's library service in 
Nebraska. Pamphlet (draft), Nebraska Library Commission, Lincoln. 

New York Library Association, Youth Services Section. Task Force on Standards for Youth 
Services. (1984). Standards for youth services in public libraries of New York State. 
Pamphlet, New York Library Association, New York. 

Ohio Library Association, Children's Services in Libraries and School Media Centers Divi- 
sion. (1984). A guideline to planning public library service to children in Ohio. Pam- 
phlet, Ohio Library Association, Columbus. 

Public Library Association, Committee on Standards for Work with Young Adults. (1960). 
Young adult services in the public library. Pamphlet, American Library Association, 

Public Library Association, Subcommittee on Standards for Children's Services. (1964). 
Standards for children's services in public libraries. Pamphlet, American Library Associa- 
tion, Chicago. 

Vermont Department of Libraries, Task Force on Children's Services. (1979). Recommenda- 
tions for public library service to children in Vermont. Pamphlet, Vermont Department 
of Libraries, Montpelier. 

Washington Library Association, Children's and Young Adult Services, Steering Committee 
for State Guidelines of Youth Services in Public Libraries of Washington State. (1986). 
Survey of children's and young adult services. Survey, Washington Library Association, 


Wilson, E. (1983). The librarian in the youth services network: Nationally and locally. In E. 
V. LiBretto (Ed.), New Directions for young adult services (pp. 103-15). New York: R. R. 

Notes on Coalitions 

Allen, P. R. (1983). Toward meeting the information needs of young people in New York 

City. In E. V. LiBretto (Ed.), New directions for young adult services (pp. 1 17-28). New 

York: R. R. Bowker. 
Blake, F. M., etal. (1985, July). Forging coalitions for the pub lie good. Paper presented at the 

American Library Association President's Program, Chicago. 
Henington, D. M. (1986). Cooperation in serving students. In A. Ladenson (Ed.), The urban 

public library makes connections for better service (pp. 17-25). Chicago: Urban Libraries 


Howard, E. N. (1978). Local power and the community library. Public Library Reporter, 18. 
Miller, S. M. (1983, Fall). Coalition etiquette: Ground rules for building coalitions. Social 

Policy, p. 19. 
Rosenzweig, S. (1986). Libraries and liaisons: Expanding the network. TopoftheNews42(4), 

Sullivan, P. A. (1979). Library cooperation to serve youth. In J. V. Rogers (Ed.), Libraries and 

young adults (pp. 113-18). Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc. 

Coalition-Building 53 

Notes on Interpersonal 
and Organizational Exploration 

Forydyce, J. K., & Weil, R. (1979). Managing with people: A manager's handbook of organiza- 
tion development methods. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 

Hampden-Turner, C. (1982). Maps of the mind. New York: Macmillan. 

Johnston, D. W., and Johnson, F. P. (1975). Joining together: Group therapy and group 
skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

Miller, S., et al. (1981). Straight talk: A new way to get closer to others by saying what you 
really mean. New York: Rawson, Wade Publishing, Inc. 

Powell, J. W., & LeLieuvre, R. B. (1979). Peoplework. Communications dynamics for librar- 
ians. Chicago: American Library Association. 


Associate Professor 

Library Media Education 

Mankato State University 

Mankato, Minnesota 

Access to Information: Professional 
Responsibility and Personal Response 

The library community devotes much attention to outsiders who attempt 
to impose their views on the collection development process. The library 
community expects that insiders will rally and, with profound indigna- 
tion, resist efforts by outsiders to censor library resources. Actual happen- 
ings illustrate that this does not always occur. In fact, well-publicized 
challenges seem to result in restrictive practices by some librarians. 

A school librarian declares that she will not purchase a Judy Blume 
book because Blume's books cause too much trouble (Hentoff, 1983, p. vii). 
A secondary school librarian states that "we are somewhat selective in our 
choice of library resources" (McDonald, 1983, p. 10). A public librarian, 
after a successful young adult Dungeons and Dragons program, vows not 
to repeat the program because of isolated community reaction. 

There is no indignation at these events, just understanding. There is 
no outcry, just a recognition that the librarian was acting to survive and 
that it could easily have been any librarian. The rationale for these actions 
explains the difference between the motivations of the outsiders and the 
motivations of the librarians. They say: "I disapprove of the ideas in this 
book." Librarians say, "the book has no literary merit," or "my budget has 
been cut and I can't buy everything." The outsiders mean that they fear the 
ideas in the book. Librarians mean that they fear the results to themselves, 
and they fear the outsiders. 

While virtually all of the voluminous writing on censorship focuses 
on the actions of outsiders, much of the actual censorship is done by 
librarians. Quietly, under the guise of selection, spurred by rumors of 
controversy, or the tainting of an author because of continuous efforts to 
remove her books, a librarian removes a book, creates a restricted shelf, or 
neglects to buy a potentially controversial title. 

These incidents are not publicized; they never reach the collective 
consciousness. Librarians do not report their self-censorship to the press. 


56 Managers and Missionaries 

In effect, librarians erect more barriers to information in their day-to-day 
activities than are imposed from the outside. Persons in the library com- 
munity need to examine their reasoning and beliefs and face the fact that 
the most serious threat to access to information comes not from those 
outside but, in fact, results from the fears, values, and actions of librarians. 

The library community has known that librarians have censored 
materials since the fifties and sixties when Fiske (1959) and Farley (1964) 
reported their research. During the 1970s, Busha (1972) affirmed earlier 
findings and added significant information about the characteristics of 
librarians who exhibit censorious inclinations. Pope (1974) and Woods 
and Salvatore (1981 ) provided more evidence that librarians are not purists 
in defending intellectual freedom. Recently, Hopkins (1984, pp. 9-22) 
reported a trend toward more self-censorship by librarians. The for- 
merly secret plague of librarians self-censorship, safe selection, restricted 
circulation is out of the closet. 

Hopkins (1984) asked: "How widespread is precensorship by library 
media specialists and what can the profession do about it at whatever level" 
(p. 18)? This presentation represents one person's answer to that question. 
It is time for the profession of librarianship to stop focusing on challenges 
to resources and begin to examine why knowledge of intellectual freedom, 
as expressed in the Library Bill of Rights and the Interpretations, is not 
enough to ensure that librarians will uphold freedom-to-read principles. 
Why do librarians who subscribe to a Code of Ethics (American Library 
Association, 1985-1986, p. 226), violate its principles? Why do librarians 
who know the value of selection policies and procedures, fail to follow 
them? The library profession must examine why librarians are able to 
articulate the values of the profession and yet act contrary to those values. Is 
it the preparation programs? Is it personal characteristics, levels of adult 
development, or the cognitive development of librarians? Is it a combina- 
tion of factors? 

The commitment to the public's right to read must go beyond the verbalization 
stage where many librarians readily give lip service to the library user's right to 
inquiry. A true commitment to freedom of access to books and information should 
progress from the realm of abstract conceptualization to functional operation in 
the day-to-day activities of the librarian, especially when a library is confronted 
with censorship pressures. (Busha, 1972, p. 4) 

Based on observations of current professional practice and the limited 
research available, it is possible to speculate about what factors affect the 
inclination of librarians to act in a manner consistent with principles of 
freedom to read. Three personal components appear to influence reactions 
to censorship pressures: first, personal characteristics of the librarian; 
second, level of commitment to a professional ethic; and third, the profes- 
sional preparation of the librarian. Three external components appear to 

Access to Information 57 

shape the personal components: first the milieu in which the librarian 
works institutional expectations, the authority and management style of 
supervisors, and the characteristics and professional commitment of 
coworkers; second, actual community response to access to information, 
including press reactions to First Amendment freedoms for children and 
young adults; and third, perceptions of community values and likely 
tolerance of intellectual freedom. This presentation focuses on the per- 
sonal components. 

Personal Characteristics 

Librarians talk about censorship as something being done to them. 
They identify the censor as the irate parent who calls the principal, or stops 
at the office of the head librarian, or contacts the library trustee. However, 
definitions of censorship make it clear that government authorities or their 
agents are the censors, not parents or other citizens. In spite of Fiske's 
(1959), Farley's (1964), and Busha's (1972) findings, librarians refuse to 
accept the term for themselves. Librarians compromise, librarians hold 
procensorship attitudes, and librarians censor. Yet librarians profess belief 
in the intellectual freedom principles in the Library Bill of Rights. 

Downs (1984) speculated that perhaps there was something in the 
psychological makeup or personality of librarians which led to their 
differing approaches to the selection and restriction of library resources (p. 
8). Discussing parental reactions to young adult books, but applicable in 
the context of the librarian as censor, Broderick (1984) said "it is unclear 
(because we have no real psychological research into the characteristics of 
censors) whether the censors have never achieved the formal operations 
stage in their cognitive development or do not understand the process that 
must be gone through to achieve this level of thought" (p. 44). Fiske(1959) 
concluded that school and public librarians do not feel strongly enough 
"as individuals or as professionals to assert" intellectual freedom values in 
the "face of public disapproval" (p. 1 10). Busha (1972) showed a correla- 
tion between authoritarian beliefs and procensorship attitudes in public 
librarians (p. 336). Farley (1964) found that more than half of the secondary 
school librarians interviewed expressed "weak, wavering, uncertain, or 
contradictory" (p. 122) attitudes toward library censorship and concluded 
that "librarians censor books because of a pressure which they cannot 
identify" (emphasis added) (p. 325). 

It may be suggested by this research. . .that the school librarian who contemplates 
the censoring of a book against his better judgment and because of "pressure" has 
a professional obligation to take thought and to attempt to identify this pressure 
to his own satisfaction, if indeed any real pressure actually exists, (p. 335) 

Donelson (1981) said: "I have no idea how many people preach 

58 Managers and Missionaries 

freedom and education while stocking only those books that please the 
community, placate the censor, ignore modern problems, eschew moral 
issues, and therefore avoid controversies" (p. 12). The Office for Intellec- 
tual Freedom (1983) described four factors which motivate the censor 
family values, political views, religion, and minority rights and added 
that no citizen and no librarian can properly assume the duty or right to 
restrict or suppress legally protected expressions of ideas (pp. 173-74). 

The library profession does not know the characteristics of a librarian 
who firmly espouses and practices intellectual freedom principles. Also, 
the profession does not know whether librarians, who successfully resist 
efforts to restrict information, exhibit similar characteristics. The profes- 
sion does not know what life stages or passages lead to the ability to 
comprehend the concepts of intellectual freedom. It is not as simple as age 
and experience. These qualities do not guarantee upholding the Library 
Bill of Rights or only first- or second-year librarians would be practicing 
self-censorship. We know that this is not the case. 

Professional Ethics 

The next component influencing the librarian's reaction to censor- 
ship pressures is the librarian's level of commitment to a professional 
ethic. Behavior in a challenge situation or a self-censorship situation 
cannot be predicted from a librarian's verbal report of valuing an ethical 
standard. People who travel around the country speaking to librarians 
about intellectual freedom issues report instances of rapt audiences, nod- 
ding in agreement at every intellectual freedom platitude uttered, with 
apparent understanding and acceptance of the principles being 
expounded. But, invariably, the first remarks following the presentation 
illustrate that librarians are able to justify self-censorship by the unique 
conditions in which they work. "Everything you say is right, but I live in a 
conservative community (or state)," or, "my principal has said I must keep 
the community in mind when I select." Nat Hentoff illustrates the point 
with descriptions of the personal reactions of several librarians. Two 
Minnesota librarians told Hentoff.they would not order Judy Blume books 
because her books are "'too much trouble' to have in a library. "An Illinois 
high school librarian, convinced that abortion is murder, will have no 
books "that may. ..encourage students to commit murder." In Massachu- 
setts, there will be no antiabortion books because a school official is 
convinced that these books promote religion (Hentoff, 1983, p. vii). 

Reading a Code of Ethics or the Library Bill of Rights does not tell the 
librarian how to apply the principles contained in the documents. Decid- 
ing what to do, while balancing conflicting claims and loyalties, marks the 
application of a Code of Ethics. Fully subscribing to the Code of Ethics 

Access to Information 59 

means librarians need to be active in shaping the world in which they work 
and not remain passive and be molded by it. If the people the librarian 
works with do not understand freedom to read concepts, the librarian will 
experience great difficulty in exercising ethical behavior. Confronted with 
conditions in the workplace antithetical to intellectual freedom, the librar- 
ian can work to change those conditions or reject the ethics of the profes- 
sion and compromise. Rather than accepting the view of the principal, the 
library trustee, or the vocal citizen, the librarian has a professional respon- 
sibility to proselytize about the only issue on which there are no opposing 
viewpoints. If librarians do not explain, exhort, and teach the importance 
of the principles governing librarianship, who will do it? 

Professional Preparation of Librarians 

The third component which shapes the personal responses of librar- 
ians is their professional preparation. No one disputes the fact that intel- 
lectual freedom receives attention during library school. Students in 
library media education courses spend considerable time studying the 
principles of selection. Students learn to develop and apply criteria for the 
selection of resources. Librarians are taught the importance of following 
approved policies and procedures when resources are challenged. Freedom 
of access to information is promoted as a professional value. However, in 
spite of passing tests on principles of selection, writing drafts of selection 
policies, and being able to apply valid criteria to the selection of resources, 
librarians' professional practices do not always reflect what was learned. 
Library educators appear to believe that if students are presented with a 
Library Bill of Rights during their professional preparation, they will 
have learned what it means and will transfer its principles to behavior at 
the reference desk, the circulation desk, or when selecting resources. 
Apparently library media educators expect that if cognitive objectives are 
met, there will be a corresponding development of appropriate behavior. 
The expectation is unfounded because self-censorship suggests that library 
education has not been effective in teaching students to apply the Library 
Bill of Rights in the workplace. 

The Proposed Agenda 

Solving the problem of the conflict between professional responsibil- 
ity and personal reactions requires efforts on the part of the entire library 
profession including library media educators, professional organizations, 
and librarians themselves. A threefold agenda is being proposed: first, an 
education which includes affective development as well as cognitive devel- 
opment; second, a profession willing to work to foster community under- 
standing of the First Amendment and the principles of freedom to read and 

60 Managers and Missionaries 

to create a climate of intellectual freedom among the persons with whom 
the librarian works e.g., supervisors, teachers, administrators, library 
trustees, and school board members; and third, a research agenda to iden- 
tify the factors which contribute to the willingness or reluctance of librar- 
ians to act on intellectual freedom principles. 

Library Education 

Clearly, an entrance requirement that incoming students demonstrate 
the right personal characteristics before admittance to library school is not 
being suggested. Granted, the task would be easy if all students arrived 
with an understanding of the First Amendment learned in eighth grade 
civics class. They do not. The suspected amount of self-censorship indi- 
cates that current teaching strategies have been unsuccessful in helping 
librarians apply freedom to read principles. Library media educators must 
examine current methods and revise them. Library school faculty must 
develop learning strategies designed to help students learn to transfer the 
principles of the First Amendment to professional library practice. 

Educators are beginning to understand how to accomplish the type of 
learning needed to prepare library media specialists who are willing to act 
on their expressed beliefs. Educational psychologists tell us that there are 
three domains in the learning environment cognitive, affective, and psy- 
chomotor. Since the psychomotor domain deals with physical skills, it 
does not apply here. The cognitive domain represents information i.e., 
knowing the norms of the group. The affective domain concentrates on 
attitudes and values, which lead to behavior consistent with the norms of 
the profession (Bloom, 1956; Krathwol et al., 1964). Both knowing and 
valuing are essential to create First Amendment activists. 

Library education, as most of education, emphasizes knowing, speci- 
fically the lower levels of cognitive learning. But cognition goes beyond 
knowing and comprehending, to what are commonly called higher order 
thinking skills application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. It is these 
higher thinking skills that will provide the librarian with the ability to 
analyze actions, to consider the implications of actions, to weigh compet- 
ing values, and to make judgments consistent with the values of the 
profession. Educational activities designed to help students apply and 
evaluate intellectual freedom principles in the context of professional 
practice might help librarians transfer knowledge to the workplace. How- 
ever, educating the mind and hoping that appropriate behavior will follow 
is not enough. 

Behavior has a cognitive component and an affective component. 
Learning about intellectual freedom will only lead to action if the student 
has an opportunity to participate in activities also emphasizing affective 

Access to Information 61 

learning. Affective learning begins with awareness, moves to attitudes and 
valuing and, if effective, results in actions. Library education must not 
merely focus on attitudes in the abstract but must present concrete situa- 
tions, real and simulated, to help students examine how committed they 
are to their expressed values and how their values must translate to behav- 
ior. When actions do not reflect stated values, the librarian rationalizes in 
terms of competing values in an attempt to explain the discrepancy. 
Library students need to have an opportunity to analyze these competing 
pressures and examine the implications of actions. While raising aware- 
ness alone will not change attitudes or values, creating dissonance by 
allowing students to experience the conflict between theory and practice 
does contribute to a clarification of values and might prepare students to 
respond to the pressures they will face. The cognitive and affective compo- 
nents in a response to a censorship incident or an inclination to self- 
censorship are illustrated in Table 1. 

The message for library educators goes beyond what has been pro- 
posed in curriculum reform. Library school faculty must also model 
intellectual freedom behavior and activism. All facets of professional prep- 
aration must be couched in the spirit of intellectual freedom. Selection 
courses are not the only place where principles of intellectual freedom are 
taught. Discussions in reference, administration, cataloging, and other 
courses must illustrate practices that enhance or create barriers to access 
information. A total library school curriculum, viewed as the forum for the 
education of intellectual freedom activists, enhances the likelihood of 






Perceiving of a censorship situation 



including recognition of how 


actions might affect others. 

Integrating of various considerations 



in order to formulate what course of 


action would best fulfill an ethical 


Deciding, calculating, weighing, and 



considering other values. 


Implementing and executing a plan of 



action, evaluating competence, and 

expected difficulties. 

Adapted from: Rest, J. R. ( 1984). The major components of morality. In W. M. Kurtines & J. 
L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Morality, moral behavior, and moral development (pp. 24-38). New York: 
John Wiley. 

62 Managers and Missionaries 

Creating a Climate of Intellectual Freedom 

Efforts of library school faculty will not accomplish all that is needed. 
Librarians do not work in a vacuum. The institution in which they work 
provides one key to whether librarians will act on their intellectual free- 
dom beliefs. Many librarians find themselves working in hostile environ- 
ments where avoiding controversy and compromise are the predominant 
values. Creating an intellectual freedom climate under these circumstances 
presents difficulties. The concepts of intellectual freedom must be trans- 
lated to institutional values for teachers, administrators, and city and 
county officials. Skills of persuasion will enable librarians to counter the 
censoring efforts of coworkers, supervisors, and the community. Members 
of governing boards need orientation to understand the importance of 
protecting access to information. The library profession, through public 
education, lobbying, and forming coalitions with other groups, needs to 
participate in fostering a climate in which access to information will 
flourish and individual librarians will feel secure in acting on their profes- 
sional values and beliefs. 

Professional Organizations 

Professional organizations share the responsibility for promoting a 
climate of intellectual freedom and for the continuing professional devel- 
opment of their members. Programming that focuses on exchanging infor- 
mation about the evils the censors are doing will not accomplish the task. 
In fact, librarians might be frightened into increased self-censorship with 
this information. Programming at professional meetings must focus on 
the attitudes and behavior of librarians. Exercises like the ones provided by 
YASD (Young Adult Services Division) and AASL (American Association 
of School Libraries) force librarians to examine their practices in the light 
of association policy. This consciousness raising might cause some librar- 
ians to reexamine their commitment to intellectual freedom (American 
Library Association, 1982; American Library Association, 1986). Programs 
featuring case histories demonstrate how censorship pressures can be re- 
sisted and provide encouragement to wavering and uncertain librarians. 
Professional organizations contribute to the continuing education of their 
members by providing opportunities to acquire and sharpen skills. Librar- 
ians do not need to hear about numbers and the titles that have been cen- 
sored, but they do need to practice skills and see examples of successful 
resistance to censorship efforts. 


Current research only hints at factors contributing to the discrepancy 

Access to Information 63 

between professional beliefs and professional practices. The library profes- 
sion needs to examine studies that have been completed and verify or reject 
the findings. Do the personal characteristics of individual librarians deter- 
mine their responses to censorship pressures? Is it authoritarian beliefs as 
Busha hinted? Is it lack of commitment to a professional ethic as Fiske 
charged? Is it a personal belief system as Hentoff illustrated? Is it some- 
thing in the personality or psychological makeup of librarians as Downs 
speculated? Is it personal values as Krug intimated? Or, is it lack of 
cognitive development as Broderick suggested? Or is it none of these factors 
but some as yet unknown variable? Ignoring the hints will not solve the 
problem, but continued investigation might. Research could provide a 
scientific base for curriculum revision, for continuing education activities, 
and for a professional plan to eliminate the self-censorship that seems so 


The task is formidable, but supporters of the First Amendment number in 
the millions. The library profession must identify its allies, enlist their aid, 
and launch a massive intellectual freedom effort. This effort could provide 
librarians with a sense of community as well as professional support 
thereby encouraging integrity in selection and access decisions. Further, 
librarians must assume personal responsibility for their professional prac- 
tices. They must stop using real or assumed outside pressures to excuse or 
to avoid facing their violations of professional ethics. Librarians must 
consciously examine the values that lead to restrictive library practices. 
Through library media education, continuing education, and program- 
ming at professional meetings, it is possible to create generations of 
intellectual freedom missionaries courageous enough to act on the belief 
system they all profess. Only this will ensure information access for chil- 
dren and young adults. 


American Library Association. (1985-1986). On professional ethics. In ALA Policy Manual 
(p. 226). Chicago, IL: ALA. 

American Library Association. American Association of School Librarians. (1986). Intellec- 
tual freedom and censorship: Do school practices reflect association policy? Unpublished 
questionnaire, American Library Association, American Association of School Librar- 
ians, Chicago. 

American Library Association. Office for Intellectual Freedom. (1983). Intellectual freedom 
manual. Chicago, IL: ALA. 

American Library Association. Young Adult Services Division. (1982). Does your library 
violate the library bill of rights. ..and not know it? Unpublished questionnaire, American 
Library Association, Young Adult Services Division, Chicago. 

64 Managers and Missionaries 

Bloom, B., et al. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: David McKay. 

Broderick, D. M. (1983). Adolescent development and censorship. In School library media 
annual (Vol. 1, p. 6). Littleton, CO. 

Busha, C. H. (1972). Freedom versus suppression and censorship: With a study of the atti- 
tudes of midwestern public librarians and a bibliography of censorship. Littleton, CO: 
Libraries Unlimited. 

Donelson, K. L. Shoddy and pernicious books and youthful purity: Literacy and moral cen- 
sorship, then and now. Library Quarterly, 51, 12. 

Downs, R. B. (1984). The first freedom today: Critical issues relating to censorship and intel- 
lectual freedom. Chicago, IL: ALA. 

Farley, J. J. (1964). Book censorship in the senior high school libraries of Nassau County, 
New York. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University. 

Fiske, M. (1959). Book selection and censorship: A study of school and public libraries in Cali- 
fornia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 

Hentoff, N. (1983). Foreword. In H. Bosmajian (Ed.), Censorship, libraries, and the law. 
New York: Neal-Schuman. 

Hopkins, D. M. (1984). Censorship of school library media materials and its implications, 
1982-1983. In S. Aaron & P. R. Scales (Eds.), School library media annual 1984 (Vol. 2, pp. 
9-22). Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited. 

Krathwol, D. R., etal. (1964). Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: David McKay. 

McDonald, F. (1983). A report of a survey on censorship in public elementary and high school 
libraries and public libraries in Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN: Civil Liberties Union. 

Pope, M. (1974). Sex and the undecided librarian: A study of librarian's opinions on sexually 
oriented literature. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. 

Rest, J. R. (1984). The major components of morality. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz 
(Eds.), Morality, moral behavior, and moral development (pp. 24-28). New York: John 

Woods, L. B., & Salvatore, L. (Winter, 1981). Self-censorship in collection development by 
high school library media specialists. School Media Quarterly 9, 102-108. 


Information Manager 
Center for Early Adolescence 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 

Part I: Funding for Youth Services 
How to Do It and Where to Find It 

No one ever said that part of the job of a young adult librarian would be 
fund-raising. I took all the courses needed to best serve young people but 
mention was never made in any course, by any teacher, of how one goes 
about getting funding for programs and materials that are not included in 
the regular library budget. Nor did anyone ever suggest that, in fact, that is 
part of a librarian's job. Evidently no one predicted that it would be 
necessary. So why is it a special issues session at this institute? 

It seems that most children's and young adult librarians had an 
experience similar to mine. One children's coordinator reported that the 
branch children's librarians do not think about fund-raising for special 
projects they do not come to her with requests, do not see it as one of their 
jobs, and are afraid to ask for money. After all, the library is a public 
institution supported by tax dollars, how can they ask for more money? 
And they are so timid about asking for money, that when they do ask, it is 
for minimal amounts. 

Yet in this age of tight funding and increased competition for what is 
available from government sources as well as from foundations and 
individuals we must be competitive in order to get enough of the share of 
the pie to carry out the services necessary to fulfill the mission of young 
adult librarian. If we don't, we will be reduced to providing minimum 
services with inadequate resources. And if we are willing to settle for that, 
what will that do for the entire field of children's and young adult librar- 
ianship, and ultimately to the young people we serve? 

This discussion will begin with a review of the fundamentals of 
grantsmanship, and you will find that these are basic tasks that need to be 
accomplished to promote children's or young adult library service under 
any circumstances. This will be followed by suggestions for how to get a 
bigger piece of the existing budget; how to obtain funding from corpora- 
tions, foundations, individuals, and other sources; and what kinds of 


66 Managers and Missionaries 

nonmonetary contributions should be considered. Applying for LSCA 
monies will be discussed in part II. This will not be a "how to write a 
proposal" approach. Not that it isn't important to know such techniques, 
but there are many excellent resources available to help with the nuts and 
bolts of the process. The focus here will be on the broader issues and will be 
touching on the very basic question of what does a children's or young 
adult librarian do, or rather, what should he or she be doing? 

Preparation for this presentation included interviews with direct ser- 
vices librarians, age-level coordinators, and state library directors in small, 
medium, and large library systems. I talked to people for whom getting 
money was a major part of their jobs and to others who did it on their own. 
The people interviewed are very successful at getting contributions, both 
monetary and in-kind. They were asked how they do it? What is the 
bureaucracy involved? What advice would they offer for successful fund- 
raising, and what they would like to hear at a conference like this. They 
were also asked to share their successes and failures. Their answers, and 
what was found in the literature frame my discussion. 

There is no question that fund-raising has not traditionally been 
considered part of the job. A literature and database search yielded very few 
books and articles that were specifically addressed to librarians. There are 
scores of publications on fund-raising, marketing, and public relations in 
general, but in the few that do address librarians, almost nothing is said 
about school librarians. There is some promising news on the horizon. A 
new periodical, The Bottom Line: A Financial Magazine for Librarians is 
now available, and a new book from Greenwood Press, Grant Proposal 
Writing: A Handbook for School Library Media Specialists, has recently 
been published. The ALSC Grants Committee is also compiling a list of 
national foundations that can be tapped for funds. 

For survival's sake, children's and young adult librarians must take a 
broader view of their profession. They must add to their job descriptions 
fund-raising, marketing, and public relations. The following "laundry 
list" of basics offers nothing that is earthshakingly new but they are 
included here because they are essential for success in getting support. The 
list includes doing your homework, knowing the research, having an 
evaluation component, being politically savvy, marketing services, doing 
public relations, knowing the organizational structure of the library or 
school, knowing the institutional mission, and having clear goals and 

Doing your homework is very important. An analysis of the commun- 
ity that is served by the library is fundamental in order to ascertain its 
needs. This includes the statistical data e.g., total population of the 
community; the number of children and young adults; projected growth or 
decline of the age group served; ethnic composition; educational levels of 

Part I: Funding for Youth Services 67 

the population; school enrollment; and economic factors such as income, 
occupations, etc. Add information about social and service organizations 
in the community, the transportation system, communications network, 
political makeup, and other available information sources. Information 
can be gleaned from other quarters one might not ordinarily think of such 
as the police, the Chamber of Commerce, bartenders, crossing guards, 
church records, immigration records, mailmen, retired people, Welcome 
Wagon, voter registration, youth clubs, and undertakers. It is necessary to 
know how many working parents there are in both single and dual-career 
families. Knowing the community is essential for fund-raising, and it is 
even more crucial for determining the services that will meet the needs of 
the population served. 

Doing your homework also includes knowing how your institution 
works. Who should be approached when you want additional materials or 
money to do a new program, and what is the procedure? In a very small 
system this may be very informal, consisting of an oral request of the 
director. In larger systems there is likely to be a more formal procedure that 
would involve moving up the hierarchy beginning with a request to the 
branch head, then to a coordinator or age- level consultant, and then to the de- 
puty director where the ultimate decision is made. If the request is for a sub- 
stantial amount, a final step might be approved by the board of trustees. Every 
system has its own procedure and knowing what the procedure is, is essential. 

Before you even think about approaching anyone with a request, have 
a clear idea of what you want the money for. Can a need be demonstrated 
and documented for this program or service? Will it address a problem in 
the community? Are goals clear? Can you demonstrate that the project has 
validity and appeal? Is it compatible with the mission of the larger institu- 
tion? Has every item been costed out including staff time, postage, mate- 
rials, duplicating, and so forth? 

Being aware of any research that will support a request will help 
enormously. For example, if additional money is needed for a summer 
reading program, citing Barbara Heyns's study on the positive effects of 
summer learning on school achievement is certain to strengthen your 
position. Heyns (1978) states: "The single summer activity that is most 
strongly and consistently related to summer learning is reading" (p. 161). 
She goes on to argue that the one institution that directly influences 
children's reading is the public library (p. 161). This cannot fail to be 
persuasive given current concern about literacy levels and school dropouts. 

If you have been successful in funding this project before and you 
want to repeat or continue it, offering proof of its success will be critical. 
Make sure an evaluation component is built into every program or service 
provided. Document what you have done and use the data collected to 
justify the request. 

68 Managers and Missionaries 

Know how to market your services, do public relations, sharpen 
networking skills, and be politically knowledgeable about the community. 
These are the "final four" for successful fund-raising. They are probably 
obvious but are not always tended to. Make sure that people know what 
you are doing both within the library or school system and out in the 
community. Good public relations and marketing not only attract chil- 
dren and young adults to your program, but also enhance the chances that 
bond issues and referenda will be approved by the voting public and 
increase the likelihood that special projects will be funded. Networking 
and being politically savvy fall under the category of "people skills." 
Know the people who serve on the school board, the library board, bank 
officers, and Friends of the Library. Become a member of the Chamber of 
Commerce, the local United Way, or any other organization that involves 
important people in the community. For school librarians, cultivate your 
staff, principal, and PTA. Make sure it is known what the other youth- 
serving agencies in the community are doing and who the people are who 
work in them. This quotation sums up the importance of people skills. 
" 'You will not raise a dime until you raise a friend' " (Waters, 1986, p. 37). 

To all of this add a dose of creativity and initiative and you are ready to 
continue the process. All of this is a tall order. Be reassured, however, that 
none of the earlier mentioned can be accomplished quickly or easily. 
Fund-raising takes time, patience, and perseverance, and it is hard work. 
The art of cultivating people is just that an art (as is fund-raising) that 
cannot be created instantaneously. And although it could be argued that 
all of us need to be tending to these basic tasks as professionals, not every 
school media specialist, children's or young adult librarian is cut out to be 
a fund-raiser. As the manager of children's services for the Louisville 
Public Library pointed out: "Fundraising is difficult. Not everyone is good 
at it" (Somerville, personal communication, October 24, 1986). If you are 
interested in fund-raising but feel that you do not know enough to do it, 
there are many workshops available that teach fund-raising techniques. 
These 'range from one day to five days in length and represent a fairly 
modest investment considering the return. Alternatives to finding the 
money yourself are turning to the grants coordinator in your system if 
you are lucky enough to have one or asking for help from a staff member 
who has been successful at fund-raising. 

Combining fund-raising efforts with those for other services is also a 
possibility. The Louisville Public Library received an H. W. Wilson award 
to improve relations with patrons. Included in their application was 
improving relations with child and young adult patrons. By the way, it is 
probably easier to get funding for children's services than anything else. 
According to Barb Fierro, former executive director of Girls Club of Rapid 
City, South Dakota: "Children's needs tug at everyone's heart strings" 

Part I: Funding for Youth Services 69 

(Fierro, personal communication, October 27, 1986). These are the basic 
principles underlying successful fund-raising, and successful 

The discussion will now move to the types of funding that are avail- 
able to librarians, beginning closest to home and ending with a discussion 
in Part II of federal grants. 

Examine first the opportunities within your system for either getting a 
bigger piece of the budget pie, or finding funding outside the regular 
budget. Whether you work in a small or large system, be familiar with the 
budget process i.e., the size of the budget and how it is allocated. The 
process for requesting a larger share will vary from system to system. In the 
New York Public Library, for example, the materials budget is based on 
level of circulation and how well the money was spent in the prior budget 
period. Careful documentation and data collection might enable a direct 
services librarian to increase his or her share of funds. In addition, the New 
York Public Library has special funds in the young adult and children's 
budget. Very active age-level specialists in the borough of Queens see to it 
that their librarians get some of these funds to promote special services and 
programs. In this situation, the age-level specialists depend on the direct 
services librarian to approach them with project plans. 

According to Barbara Elleman (1986), editor of children's books 
for Booklist, for school libraries, "[t]he principal is the link to the 
purse strings." She gives helpful advice to school principals in an issue of 
Here's How on how to vitalize the school library. School librarians can 
turn her advice to their own advantage. 

Other sources are available within one's system e.g., Friends of the 
Library, the PTA, and patrons themselves. In 1985, $28 million was raised 
by Friends groups across the country (Margolis, 1 986, p. 7 ). One group held 
a Thanksgiving pie sale and raised enough money to buy new furniture, 
toys, and VCRs and to offer community cooking classes. Book sales run by 
Friends' groups and PTAs can raise thousands of dollars for a library. 
Want a piece of that pie? Know how the money is allocated, and know the 
people who have decision-making power. And last, but certainly not least, 
tap the young people in your system. 

In the Virginia Beach Public Library, teenagers raised money for the 
programs they wanted. What a great way to involve the community and 
publicize services while at the same time giving young people an oppor- 
tunity for meaningful participation in the community. 

After you have exhausted all the possibilities of getting money from 
within your institution and you still need funds, where do you turn next? 
The next step should be local sources of funding. 

These include local businesses and merchants, local foundations and 
corporations, your local United Way, and individuals. When approaching 

70 Managers and Missionaries 

local businesses and corporations, the key to remember is that "people give 
because they 'get something' out of giving" (Brakely, 1986, p. 26). The 
"something" they get need not be tangible. They may get a good feeling 
from giving, they may give to feel wanted and appreciated, or because they 
believe in the cause. Guilt may be the motivating factor, or a desire for 
power and influence. And don't overlook the part peer pressure plays, or 
the competitive spirit. What you must do is correctly assess the person you 
are approaching. Is he or she the type that is big-hearted, a soft touch for 
helping kids? Is he or she the type who will respond to the plight of one 
child or would a global approach be better. An example of the latter is: "If 
this isn't funded, 20,000 children in this community will not have a 
summer reading program" (Somerville, personal communication, 
October 26, 1986). Some will only be interested in what the grant will do 
for their business and want only the publicity. The request must be tailored 
to the needs of the individual donor. 

Corporations give for a wide range of reasons. Some prefer to fund 
only those projects that will benefit their employees, some have a real sense 
of social responsibility and will fund projects that will benefit the com- 
munity as a whole. Knowing why a corporation gives is part of the 
homework that must be done before initiating a request. Getting this 
information includes researching the corporation and using your people 
skills. You must pitch a request to what the corporation is interested in. 
Richard Waters (1985) sums it up in this way: "We must match up the 
donor's needs with our needs. Hear me! I did not say match up our needs 
with the donor's" (p. 36). 

Sometimes a donor will come to the library with a project yes, 
Virginia, there is a Santa Glaus. In Rhode Island, Old Stone Bank 
approached the state library. It wanted to fund a project that would focus 
on historical characters. The first year the bank gave $60,000 to fund a 
children's theater group that performed in branch libraries. The works 
performed were based on characters from historical books; and part of the 
funding went for the purchase of copies of the books for each branch. In the 
second year the grant was increased to $150,000. For the 350th anniversary 
of Rhode Island, the bank wanted to fund a project along the same lines as 
year one but using characters from Rhode Island history. There were no 
books available, so the bank commissioned two authors to write a book 
the bank paid for its publication. The theater group will do performances 
based on the characters. 

And how do you show appreciation for the contributions so that the 
next time you ask for money the donor will be favorably disposed to grant 
the request? When a local toy store funded one librarian's film program, 
she had bookmarks printed up that said: "Wayne's Toytown Cares About 
Kids." These were distributed at the library and at the toy store. All 

Part I: Funding for Youth Services 71 

publicity in newspapers and the media repeated this slogan. As a follow-up 
and thank you for a summer reading program that was funded by two local 
companies, Mary Somerville prepared scrapbooks for each donor that 
included publicity clippings and thank you notes written by the children 
so that the donors would know what their contributions accomplished and 
with the hope that they would fund the project again next summer. 

Consider cooperating with another community agency to get funding 
for a joint project. Some likely agencies would be boys and girls clubs, the 
local Y, parks and recreation departments, etc. 

Do not underestimate the potential funds that can be raised from 
individuals. Of the total charitable dollars given by the private sector in 
1984, 84 percent came from individual donors, while only 10 percent came 
from foundations and corporations (Klein, 1985). There are unlimited 
ways to raise money from individuals limited only by your imagination. 
These can be a lot of fun. Some good ideas come from Barb Fierro. In Rapid 
City, population 40,000, $70,000 was raised in a "Pennies for Kids" cam- 
paign. Jars for pennies were placed all over the city. Student Councils 
pushed it, there were public service announcements, and newspaper pub- 
licity. Volunteers counted and wrapped the pennies. "Tip Me Big" was 
another successful fund-raiser, although on a much smaller scale. A restau- 
rant was asked to participate. Local celebrities e.g., senators, the mayor, 
etc. served as waitpersons. People made reservations to eat and all the tips 
earned by the celebrities were donated to the project amount raised, 
$5,000. My all-time favorite though is the "Kids for Kids" campaign which 
was to fund Head Start. A baby goat was delivered to a person at their place 
of employment. In order to get rid of the goat they had to contribute! 10 to 
the project. 

Sometimes an idea doesn't work. One that was not successful was 
Mary Somerville's idea to auction off an Arabian horse to help raise money 
for a local radio station. This didn't work because the bottom fell out of the 
Arabian horse market as a result of tax law changes. 

The next important source of funds are state and national founda- 
tions. Applying involves more work and time because, usually, an exten- 
sive written proposal is required. Keep in mind all of the basics discussed 
earlier. Preparation will have a new component i.e., researching the 
foundations to approach for funding. The best place to start is with the 
Foundation Center. The Foundation Center is a national source of infor- 
mation on philanthropic giving. Using its publications and its nation- 
wide network of library reference collections, you will be able to identify 
foundation programs that correspond to your needs. Choose the founda- 
tions carefully. Make sure there is a match between your project and 
the interests of the foundation. In his book, Grant Money and How to 
Get It, Richard Boss (1980) has included an appendix which lists 

72 Managers and Missionaries 

private foundations with a stated interest in libraries or some history of 
making grants to libraries (pp. 92-113). Sometimes libraries are not speci- 
fically listed as an area of interest of foundations. If this is the case, look for 
subjects that might cover libraries such as cultural projects or education. 

The last source of contributions to mention before the presentation by 
Ruth Faklis's presentation on LSCA funding is of the "in-kind" variety. 
Falling into this category are volunteers, cooperative ventures, donations 
of such things as food, audiovisual materials, computers, furniture, print- 
ing and duplicating, gifts to the library, and the like. Gifts can be more 
trouble than they are worth. But, trust me, there can be gold in "them thar 
gifts." One Texas library received a gift of a collection of valuable Navajo 
rugs. These were prominently displayed and graciously acknowledged. 
The pleased donor might be a future source of contributions. 

Volunteers can also be a mixed blessing. Careful selection and train- 
ing of volunteers can be a substantial source of help and be worth the staff 
time involved in recruiting and training. The keys here are recruitment, 
adequate training, a show of appreciation, getting feedback, and evaluat- 
ing results. Pasadena has a great system for recruiting volunteers for all 
government agencies. There is an office that screens the volunteers before 
the names are turned over to the agencies. Requests for volunteers are 
included in the community's electric bills. This way, every person in the 
community knows if, for example, the library needs volunteers. Consider 
tapping civic groups, senior citizens, and local businesses. And please do 
not overlook using teenagers as volunteers. Some companies encourage 
their employees to volunteer in the community and will provide release 
time for this purpose. One problem in the P.S. column in Bottom Line is 
"How can I figure out how much our current volunteer program costs the 
library" (Cassell, 1986, p. 52)? The solution is to cost out the staff time 
involved in writing a job description, recruiting and interviewing prospec- 
tive volunteers, training, and supervision. This is useful information to 
have. It will determine whether enlisting volunteers is a worthwhile activ- 
ity in your library. 

Broaden your idea of who should serve as volunteers. The Seattle 
Public Library planned a showing of the film Fame (Van Wyk, 1985) to be 
followed by a panel discussion by local artists all at no cost. The artists 
were delighted to contribute their time, and the program was a great 

In small communities, particularly rural communities, there is a 
strong history of citizen participation and volunteerism. People are often 
willing to contribute their time and talents for special projects. Tailoring 
your need to their talent can have gratifying results. For more ideas, see the 
October issue of American Libraries (McCormick, 1986) and Irene Martin's 
(1984) article in Rural Libraries. 

Part I: Funding for Youth Services 73 

The best sources of tangible products are those businesses that sell the 
products or services you need. Try McDonalds for refreshments for the 
party you plan at the end of your summer reading program, or try a local 
photoduplicating business for having flyers printed up. The possibilities 
are endless. 

Don't overlook cooperative ventures as a source of programming that 
does not involve an outlay of money, although staff time is always 
involved. A wonderful example is the Pasadena Arts Workshop which 
obtained funding to do outreach arts programs. The programming sites 
include the branch libraries in Pasadena, offering their children's librarian 
a fine opportunity to expose children to what the library has to offer in the 
way of arts and crafts books, puppetry, film programs, etc. And the 
audience consists of young people who might not already be library users, 
since the project targets minority and disadvantaged populations. 

I have touched on a lot of issues here and all haven't been covered. 
There are non-LSCA grants available from government agencies such as 
the National Endowment for the Humanities that haven't been mention- 
ed, but these are easy to find out about. 

And as daunting as all this may seem, money does beget money, 
success breeds success, so be persistent and patient. Keep in mind the 
importance of people skills in the final analysis, people give to people. 
Think of the profession of children's or young adult librarian in the 
broadest sense; recognize that although you probably have taken courses 
where you learned about book selection and book talks, planning film 
programs and storytelling, there is a lot more to being a children's or 
young adult librarian than you learned in school and that includes fund- 


Boss, R. W. (1980). Grant money and how to get it: A handbook for librarians. New York: R. 

R. Bowker. 

Brakeley, G. A., Jr. (1980). Tested ways to successful fund raising. New York: AMACOM. 
Cassell, K. A., ed. (1986). P.S. from our readers. The Bottom Line: A Financial Magazine for 

Librarians, 1 (charter issue), 52. 

Elleman, B. (1986, October). Vitalizing the school library. Here's How, 5. 
Heyns, B. (1978). Summer learning and the effects of schooling. New York: Academic Press. 
Klein, K. (1985). Fundraising for social change. Washington, DC: Center for Responsive 

Margolis, B. (1986). In the news: Friends of Libraries are potent fund raisers. The Bottom 

Line: A Financial Magazine for Librarians, 1 (charter issue), 7. 

Martin, I. (1984). Stretching: Making a little money go.... Rural Libraries, 4(2), 49-53. 
McCormick, E. (1986, October). Youth reach: Revitalizing the children's area. American Li- 
braries, 17, 712-714. 
Van Wyk, J. E. (1985, February). Seattle fame: A celebration of Seattle's young people. Voice 

of Youth Advocates, 7, 311-312. 
Waters, R. (1985, Spring). Public/private relationships make it happen. Public Library 

Quarterly, 6, 27-37. 


Youth Services Consultant 

Suburban Library System 

Burr Ridge, Illinois 

Part II: Funding for Youth Services 
Library Services and Construction Act 

When seeking funding for additional programs, special projects, 
expanded library services, etc., the Library Services and Construction Act 
(LSCA) grant monies should be considered. All fifty states are entitled to 
LSCA funds. Each may administer the funds a little differently; however, 
certain requirements are to be met by all. These include the following: 

1 . a state must submit a state plan of action; 

2. each state must submit a five year program; and 

3. each state must review and amend where necessary its approved state 
plan, review and revise its five year program and submit an annual 
program list of its projects (Corry, 1982, p. 65). 

The U.S. Congress authorizes library legislation and appropriates 
funds for library services through the Library Services and Construction 
Act. These funds are allocated to the states by the U.S. Department of 
Education (Illinois State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4). This agency requires the 
state to fulfill the aforementioned obligations to obtain LSCA monies (the 
specific regulations for the Library Services and Construction Act may be 
found in volume 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, chapters 74, 75, 76 
and 77) (Illinois State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4). 

The LSCA grant process is divided into three title programs. Each title 
program has specific guidelines/objectives for the grantee to adhere to 
when applying for funding. 

Title I funds have been used to purchase library materials such as books 
and equipment. It may also be used for salaries, other operating expenses, 
for the administration of start plans, and for strengthening the capacity of 
state library administrative agencies to meet the needs of the people of the 
state (Corry, 1 982, p. 66). These funds are not intended for private or special 
library use but rather for use by public libraries which serve all of the 
public (Corry, 1982, p. 64). 


76 Managers and Missionaries 

As a side note, it should be brought to your attention that currently the 
Illinois State Library is being asked by the U.S. Department of Education 
to return $15 million of LSCA funds which was not specifically used by 
"public libraries which serve all of the public." The Illinois State Library 
supports multitype library systems. This means that private and public, 
academic, high schools, and special libraries are encouraged to become full 
participating members of Illinois Library Systems that are multitype. 
Those multitype systems that have received LSCA funding for interlibrary 
cooperation, delivery, resource sharing, etc. have technically extended the 
intent of LSCA funding which again was to be used "for public libraries 
which serve all the public." 

Although the U.S. Department of Education in no way accuses the 
Illinois State Library of using the funds for frivolous acts or specified 
misconduct, and indeed have agreed the funds were used to support effec- 
tive and creative library services within the state, the fact that the LSCA 
funds were not directed only for use by "public libraries which serve all the 
public" has prompted the U.S. Department of Education to request a 
refund of the allocated funds. This matter is still pending and awaiting a 
final resolution. 

A library grant submitted specifically for Title I funds must address 
one or more of the following seven objectives to be considered: 

1 . The extension of public library services to areas without such services. 

2. The improvement of such services in areas where such services are 

3. Making library services more accessible to persons who, by reason of 
distance, residence, or physical handicap, or other disadvantage, are 
unable to receive the benefits of public library services regularly made 
available to the public. 

4. Adapting public library services to meet particular needs of persons 
within the state, including the needs of persons in state institutions. 

5. Strengthening major urban resource libraries (public libraries). 

6. Improving library services to persons with limited English-speaking 
ability or with literacy needs. 

7. Providing service through community information and referral centers 
(Illinois State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4). 

Any public library in a system, or a system, or other library-related group 
may apply for a Title I grant (Illinois State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4). 

Title II LSCA funds are intended for "construction of new buildings 
and acquisition, expansion, remodeling and alteration of existing build- 
ings, and may be applied for by any public library or System" (Illinois 
State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4). Matching fund requirements for Title I and 
II were located via amendments to LSCA in 1977. Any federal funds 

Part II: Funding for Youth Services 77 

expended for the administration of the LSCA act must be equally matched 
by state or other nonfederal funds (Corry, 1982, p. 66). 

A single entity, two or more types of libraries in a system, or a system 
may apply for a Title III grant to plan, establish, expand, and operate 
cooperative networks of libraries and to plan for statewide resource sharing 
(Illinois State Library Staff, 1984, p. 4). Purchase of materials such as books 
are not fundable under the Title III grant act. 

Before the actual grant proposal is written, the author must assess the 
needs of his/her library and community needs. Certain questions must be 
addressed such as how many patrons will this grant benefit, how will 
fulfillment of this grant improve library service to patrons, etc.? If the 
intent of your proposal is interagency cooperation, then cooperative plan- 
ning and grant writing is necessary. 

Once a determination is made on the part of the grantee as to which 
Title program they wish to apply to for LSCA funding, they should 
contact their state library or library system to ensure following the proper 
procedures in the application request. In most cases the information 
required for local funding and/or contributions would be required in the 
application of an LSCA grant. This includes one or more of the following 

an abstract of the project; 
a statement of philosophy or need; 
a statement of purpose for the project specifying the origins and support 

for its implementation; 

goals and objectives for the project including a timeline; 
procedures for the project's implementation; 

an evaluation of the project with specific regards to the goals and objec- 
tives that were sought; 

a budget which includes in-kind support; 
letter of support (Klish et al., pp. 37, 49, 75). 

The author of a proposal should meet all the aforementioned compo- 
nents of a grant with their own writing style and delivery. This makes the 
proposal uniquely theirs. For the sake of the reviewer, no two grant 
submissions should be exactly alike in style and composition because the 
lack of creativity expressed may indeed be interpreted as a lack of creativity 
toward the proposed project. Therefore, when submitting a grant pro- 
posal, let it reflect the excitement and influence that is felt toward the 
fulfillment of the project. 

One of the priorities in the LSCA Title I program is the programming 
of library service to disadvantaged persons who might not otherwise have 
access to such service (Corry, 1982, p. 67). In the past the term disadvan- 
taged has been defined to include native Americans, blacks, foreign speak- 
ing citizens, and, more recently, senior citizens, rural farm workers, and 

78 Managers and Missionaries 

youth (in particular, two categories of youth preschoolers and young 

More and more grants are being submitted to initiate programs that 
will serve these "unserved." These programs will test the flexibility of the 
proposal for continued funding on behalf of the grantee's library in sub- 
sequent years. 

Again, when seeking funding for additional programs, special proj- 
ects, expanded library services, etc. the Library Services and Construction 
Act grant monies are available as an alternative to private and/ or local 
sources of funding. A serious applicant should contact their state library or 
library system for complete grant funding information. 


Corry, E. (1982). Grants for libraries. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited. 

Illinois State Library Staff, et al. (1984). Library Services and Construction Act grants man- 
agement system operating manual. Springfield, IL: State of Illinois. 

Kalish, S. E., et al. (1983). The proposal writer's swipe file: 75 winning fund-raising pro- 
posals.. .prototypes of approaches, styles and structures. Washington, DC: Taft 


Assistant Children's Services Manager 

Cuyahoga County Public Library 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Marketing Youth Library Services: 
A User Approach 

Library services to youth are in crisis. New library school graduates 
information managers all are refusing to enter the field in the numbers 
they used to and library directors often cannot fill positions they have in 
youth services. School librarian positions are getting harder to fill as well. 
Who, after all, wants to have the sole responsibility for three or four 
libraries when each should be supporting a full-time professional? Young 
adult librarians are still looked on as optional (The Ohio Library Associa- 
tion just held a program called "Young Adult Service, a Right, Not a 
Privilege"), and children's librarians are fast becoming an endangered 
species in some areas of the country. Can anything be done? Does anyone 

The answer must be a resounding yes. Library services for children are 
appreciated and demanded by the public. In a 1983 survey of Cuyahoga 
County, Ohio residents, 93 percent said library programs for children were 
important services for public libraries to offer second only to libraries' duty 
to provide information (Decision Research Corporation, 1983, pp. 34, 38). 
The positive impact of library summer reading programs on the reading 
skills of children has been demonstrated (Greene & Cummins, 1983, pp. 
370-372; Heyns, 1978, p. 1 77), and many youth librarians experience glow- 
ing testimonies about the quality of life improvements that the library has 
effected in the lives of their children and young adults (Broderick, 
1986, p. 118). 

In the current climate of scarce tax dollars and career climbing after 
prestige positions, the forgetful need to be reminded and the ignorant need 
to be informed of the fact that youth librarians provide extremely valuable 
services to the community. It is time for marketing marketing not only 
youth services but youth librarians themselves. 


80 Managers and Missionaries 


What is marketing? Marketing is the series of decisions that organiza- 
tions must make to effectively move their products or services to the user. 
Marketing is public relations with an edge. Public relations tries to influence 
attitudes, but marketing carefully designs programs that target specific 
user groups in terms of their needs and desires and programs that will 
bring about a change in user behavior in order to achieve organizational 
objectives (Kotler, 1982, p. 6). 

According to Philip Kotler (1982), "[mjarketing is the philosophical 
alternative to force" (p. 7). Organizations try to offer their attractive mar- 
keting packages so that their powerful allure of benefits will induce a 
favorable response. In other words, an exchange of value is sought. The 
values sought from library users are expressions of tangible and intangible 
public support, and increased use of the services libraries provide, services 
that in turn satisfy user needs. It is a voluntary trade. 

The User Orientation 

An organization that tries to sell a product or service solely on the basis 
of its own personal tastes will fail. Marketing turns its attention instead on 
the user. Focusing on the users' needs and desires and finding ways to 
match them to organizational objectives will increase the use of the prod- 
ucts and services offered. 

Libraries that try to be all things to all people will end up using public 
monies inefficiently. If the library manager divides the library's total 
market into market segments i.e., subgroups of users with similar charac- 
teristics, motivations, and desires it will be easier to identify users' needs 
and wants. Then, based on the market segments identified, specific needs 
and services that are seldom used can be eliminated, and services that are 
wanted by the user can be expanded. 

Most libraries also include another factor in their decision-making 
i.e., the library's mission to provide quality services. Adopting a user 
orientation does not mean that professionals have to give up their profes- 
sional expertise, but that they must communicate it better since it adds 
additional opinions into the equation of quality service. It is a matter of 

Marketing is, however, a democratic process and is antithetical to 
elitist approaches. The old "cultural uplift" approach of the nineteenth- 
century library has largely given way to providing the needs and wants of 
the public regardless of librarians' opinions of appropriateness (Dragon & 
Leisner, 1984, p. 34). The "reading ladders" model where librarians offer 
the next higher level of excellence in literature or the next better step in 

Marketing Youth Library Services 81 

edification is not as much used in libraries today but has been replaced 
with meeting the expressed and perceived needs and desires of the patron. 
Children's librarians have much more difficulty with this trend than 
young adult librarians since children are less experienced, less mature, and 
less able to make wise decisions for themselves. Children need help and 
adults love to give it. Still, over the last twenty years, library service to 
children has moved toward giving the wants of young patrons much more 
attention than it used to and this is reflected in children's library collec- 
tions today. 

Future Trends 

The process of planning new services to market in the future should 
involve a close look at trends in society. Visionaries such as Alvin Toffler 
(1970; 1 980) and John Naisbitt( 1982) have published valuable perspectives 
on current society "megatrends" and their future possibilities. The credi- 
bility of these major trends has been established in the business community 
and in the management literature (Conroy, 1984, p. 9). The implications 
for library service are strong. 

There are three major trends discernible in society today that will have 
an increasingly strong impact on youth library services in the decades 
ahead. The first is that society has changed from a society based on 
industrial production to one based on the creation and distribution of 
information. New electronic information technologies are being invented 
so fast that it is impossible for most people to keep up with it all. Comput- 
ers shrink, but their power grows. Their ability to store retrievable bits of 
information in ever smaller microscopic storage areas continues to pro- 
gress. Although the book is not likely to be replaced soon, information is 
being stored in a variety of technological formats, and youth librarians 
must continue to be knowledgeable about them and to provide an increas- 
ing number of strategically marketed library programs involving the new 

The second important trend states that as new technologies are intro- 
duced, there must be a balancing human response to ensure that the 
technologies are accepted. A "high touch" is needed to offset and ease the 
way of the "high tech. " Some library programs will be aimed at making the 
new technology "user friendly." Other programs for youth will focus on 
understanding the complexities of modern life and on bringing meaning 
to human lives surrounded by nonhuman technologies. Continued 
emphasis on the youth literatures through book talks, storytelling, and 
reading programs will bring the greater human interaction and communi- 
cation needed to cope with hard-edged technologies and an intense world. 

The third important trend affecting society-at-large is that hierarchi- 
cal, centralized, organizational structures are giving way to participatory, 

82 Managers and Missionaries 

decentralized, informal networks. As individuals become more aware of 
choices, more willing to work for long-term considerations, and more 
desirous of seeking greater control over their lives, they want to participate 
in decisions that affect them. More and more people are preferring to 
exchange ideas and information as equals and hate it when someone 
"pulls rank." Networking methods are evolving now that connect people 
at all levels of organizations. The Type Z organization and the quality 
circle problem-solving groups are two examples. Directors and managers 
trained in the hierarchical model will feel increasingly frustrated if they 
don't change because everyone, it will seem to them, will be wanting to 
know all the reasons for every decision. Some administrators may feel this 
way already. 

In the library field itself, administrators have been putting increasing 
importance on marketing the library. The library profession, according to 
The ALA Yearbook of Library and Information Services, "appears to be 
refining its attitudes away from a previous mode of bubbly, gregarious 
enthusiasm for PR. In its place, a more subtle, sophisticated approach to 
promotion has taken root. Public relations also seems to enjoy a previously 
unknown aura of respectability in the upper echelons of management" 
(Eldredge, 1986, p. 252). 

Nonprofit organizations of all types have recently taken a careful, 
attentive approach to marketing their services and library directors have 
also taken to arranging their public relations efforts according to thought 
out plans. User-oriented marketing is not a temporary fad. In light of 
society "megatrends" and of trends within librarianship itself, it would 
seem wise for youth librarians to give the subject considerable thought 
and effort as well. 

Data Collection 

Library services to youth reach a number of markets e.g., preschool- 
ers, elementary school children, young adults, parents, teachers, other 
professionals who work with youth, administrators, boards of trustees, 
community organizations, the disabled, volunteers, etc. Library markets 
grow and change, so identifying new groups to serve is an ongoing process. 

To develop a strategy for marketing a new target group, it is necessary 
to collect data about them. It is helpful to know the group's needs and 
wants, their size, age range, location, education, lifestyle, other groups 
serving them, the group's likelihood of continuing with the library service 
under consideration, the public relations possibilities, and the cost of 
reaching the group. Once these factors are considered and weighed against 
library resources, it is possible to determine whether an effective change or 
addition to services can be made. 

Marketing Youth Library Services 

Once the target group is using library services, more information 
needs to be collected to determine patterns of use. Analyzed data can lead to 
tailoring the service even closer to the needs of the user. The recent interest 
in output measures by library administrators underscores their interest in 
gathering information about users and reinforces the recognition of 
library directors' increased user orientation. Youth librarians should also 
use output data as it can provide additional information in designing 
programs and in managing their collections (Hippenhammer, 1986, 
pp. 309-13). 

The Marketing Mix 

Most people think of marketing in terms of selling and advertising. 
This is not surprising since it is estimated that the average consumer is 
bombarded with 1600 messages of advertisement throughout the course of 
one day (Fox, 1984, p. 328). But marketing is much more than selling. It 
offers several techniques that managers can use to cover the broad spectrum 
of factors that influence buying (using) behavior. These techniques are 
called product, price, distribution, and promotion. Blending these tools to 
produce an effective marketing package is called designing the marketing 
mix (Kotler, 1982, p. 8). 

The first technique involves examining five controllable characteris- 
tics of the product: styling, features, quality, packaging, and branding 
(Kotler, 1982, pp. 292-95). The distinctive look or "feel" of a product is its 
"styling." A warm, brightly-colored children's room will attract users 
more than a cold imposing one, for example. Optional product compo- 
nents that can be changed without altering its essence are called "features." 
Adding a celebrity visit to one's summer reading club may be optional, but 
it may help in getting free media publicity. The "quality" of a service is its 
perceived level of performance over time and "packaging" is the larger 
situation or surroundings that contain the service. Library architecture, 
children's room arrangement, and shelving design are all examples of 
packaging. Lastly, giving brand names or logos to products is an attempt 
to identify and distinguish them as different from the competition's prod- 
ucts, usually as more unique or prestigious. Renaming libraries "media 
centers" is an example of this "branding." 

The second technique of marketing is pricing. The problem with 
encouraging the marketing of libraries is that demands may outstrip 
resources. In the profit sector, price acts as a control on demand but in 
nonprofit libraries demand is usually limited through library policies 
(e.g., restrictions on telephone reference questions and on the number of 
videotapes circulated) and staff behavior (from shushing to policing youth 
behavior). Generally, libraries try to provide "free" service to maximize 

84 Managers and Missionaries 

use, but every service has its costs, whether it is invisible tax support, a 
trade-off in other services not provided, or inconvenience. 

The third marketing technique is distribution. Libraries must make 
their services available and accessible to their potential users. The design, 
location, and number of facilities will affect library use. Other common 
ways to distribute library services have been to use bookmobiles, make 
classroom visits, or deliver kits of library materials to outreach centers. 

The last marketing technique is promotion. Publicity is the most 
widely used type of promotion in libraries. Publicity is the nonpaid, 
favorable attention given to a product or service through various media 
and published as significant news (Kotler, 1982, p. 355). Youth librarians 
are strong on producing flyers, posters, bulletin boards, press releases, 
newsletters, and bibliographies, but not so strong on making television 
and radio appearances, giving speeches, or creating news events. In-person 
selling (i.e., building goodwill) and paid advertising are other forms of 
promotion that work and that should also be examined for use in different 
library settings. 

Gaining Credibility 

The bulk of public relations is doing the job well and reminding 
others of that quality. On regularly scheduled occasions, however, librar- 
ians should plan and execute the new and or unusual service or marketing 
project. Perhaps a dusty, old, not-much-used service needs a new polishing 
or a library image of one kind or another needs updating. For example: 
Little Miss Muffet / Sat on a tuffet / Eating her curds and whey. / Along 
came a spider / And sat down beside her / And frightened Miss Muffet 

Miss Muffet, in this age of feminism, has an image problem. Few 
self-respecting librarians of either sex today would ever admit publicly to 
being frightened by something as insignificant as a spider. But one must 
ask what technological spiders are sitting down beside youth librarians 
these days and what are their reactions? No doubt, a second verse for poor 
little Miss Muffet is needed. Big Bad Giant / Sat on his Reliant / Eating his 
Big Mac with cheese. / He whistled at Ms. Muffett / Who told him to stuff 
it / And kicked him one right on the knees. 

Gaining credibility for youth library services is a difficult business. 
Libraries in society are generally invisible e.g., libraries were not even 
mentioned in A Nation at Risk (National Commission on Excellence in 
Education, 1983) and within the library profession, service to children is 
generally invisible and neglected (White, 1983, pp. 97-99). 

Countering the invisibility of youth library services must be 
approached by confronting several market segments. The first market to 

Marketing Youth Library Services 85 

address is the library administrator or principal. Youth librarians need to 
be seen as managers or as part of the managerial team in order to carry some 
weight in decision-making. Unfortunately, being creative and offering 
creative programs is often seen as incompatible with being an effective 
manager. It is perhaps understandable that administrators feel this way if 
they regularly see children's librarians in clown suits. 

There are, however, several ways to gain credibility with administra- 
tors: (1) provide a solid program of substance and save the flash for key 
public relations moments; (2) regularly communicate that substance to the 
administrator through monthly and special reports as well as in person; 
(3) be cooperative in projects the administrator wants tried; and (4) never 
let the administrator or other professionals get away with accusing a youth 
librarian of having fun on the job. After all, it is work and hard work at 
that. If you are having fun, keep it under your hat. 

Parents, teachers, and other professionals who serve youth are impor- 
tant additional markets with whom youth librarians should build strong 
relationships. Do this by communicating even marketing one's ser- 
vices to them, by cooperating in projects with them, and by treating their 
children right. Treating young library patrons with the same courtesy and 
consideration adults would get will not only impress them but their 
parents and teachers as well. 

The most important markets to confront are the children and young 
adults themselves. Get to know their wants and needs and then provide 
library materials and services to meet them. Student advisory councils have 
worked well, especially with young adults. Ask for their opinions. Spend a 
small part of the materials budget on their fads and hot topics and enter 
into and be able to discuss their current interests. Several "with-it" posters 
in the library can do wonders for public relations and make the library a 
more comfortable place to visit. Keeping the library alive and sensitive to 
its many varied markets and meeting patrons well are two precepts that 
account for 90 percent of effective library service (Hunsicker, 1973, p. 120). 
Adequately communicating that good performance to the public so it is 
publicly appreciated is effective public relations. Credibility is based on 
just such recognized, consistent, competent performance. 

Acting Now for the Future 

Having looked at some major trends in society and at the need for a 
marketing user orientation, what specific actions can be taken to improve 
the public relations of, and the future of, library service to youth? There are 
three areas where improvements can be made. The first is to identify new 
market segments (new publics). One such market segment is preschoolers 
in day-care centers and day-care homes. Preschoolers in day-care homes 

86 Managers and Missionaries 

and their caregivers are a group virtually untouched by targeted library 
service and the need is great. During 1985, 39 percent of all three-and-four- 
year-olds were enrolled in preschool compared to 1 1 percent twenty years 
earlier, and between 75 and 90 percent of all family day-care facilities are 
unlicensed or unregistered (Brophy, 1986, p. 60). 

A second market segment is latchkey school-age children. This group 
is a growing societal phenomenon and cooperative programs with other 
community agencies are needed. 

A third market segment involves youth in crisis. Library information 
and referral programs for youth with drug problems, suicide intentions, 
need for abortion alternatives, etc. or cooperation with community pro- 
grams, hot-lines and other in-place civic organization aids should con- 
tinue to be established. 

The last two potential markets, home schools and the new conserva- 
tive parochial schools, have grown remarkably in the last decade with the 
rise of the new conservatism, and both have little or no library service. 
Careful communication will be the key to serving these two groups 

The second area where improvements should meet the future of 
library service to youth is in polishing the image of the youth librarian. 

1 . The concept of generic librarians, known by some as generalists, must 
be fought. This model of library service has been devastating to the age 
subject specialties and to service to youth. Children and young adults 
need librarians deeply knowledgeable in their literatures. 

2. Youth librarians must be seen as public service professionals. Making a 
children's librarian catalog juvenile books in a back corner is wasting a 
public service talent and wasting public relations opportunities. Hir- 
ing a young adult librarian who likes to catalog books is like hiring a 
reference librarian who hates to answer the phone. 

3. Publicize awards and recognitions won by youth librarians. 

4. Highlight successful youth librarians in both local and national media. 

5. Train speakers to promote not only the youth literatures but also the 
youth library business. All youth librarians should be trained to see 
themselves as PR ambassadors but a handful of especially fluent and 
verbal "personalities" should be subsidized to argue and enhance the 
case at the national level, both within and without the profession. The 
youth associations within ALA could gather the research studies, anec- 
dotes, and other supportive material in a handy form for background 
information for persuasive speech making. 

6. Youth librarians should mentor and recruit public service talent into 
their fields. 

7. Start establishing a corporate image for "youth library services" by 
developing the recognizable, visual identity of a logo or symbol. Done 

Marketing Youth Library Services 87 

right, branding can be a powerful public relations tool. 

The third area where changes should be made is in fine-tuning library 
services to the trends of the future and to their public relations impact: 

1 . Include patron use data in managing youth library collections, particu- 
larly in additional copy acquisition and weeding decisions. 

2. Budget for special public relations programs. 

3. Examine opportunities within the community for outreach, particu- 
larly within the political arena e.g., Cuyahoga County Public 
Library's 1986 Summer Reading Club theme was "Hooray for the 
U.S.A.!" a theme that tied in nicely with the Statue of Liberty centen- 
nial celebrations, and one that gave many local politicians the oppor- 
tunity to participate in patriotic celebrations at their local library. The 
governor of Ohio also awarded a citation of merit and letters of congrat- 
ulations to reading club participants. 

4. Delegate preschool story hours to well- trained assistants so the profes- 
sional can concentrate on the more difficult toddler and school-age 
story hours. 

5. Increase the use of puppets and puppet shows to extend children's 
literature to wider audiences. 

6. Encourage the telling of literary stories in a nonmemorized, storytelling 

7. Look for ways to mesh new technologies with current library practice 
e.g., create a literary pen pal book reviewing club using electronic 
bulletin boards and modems to encourage young readers to recommend 
books to their peers. 

8. Start a juvenile videotape collection that circulates to children. 


As the twenty-first century approaches, it is imperative that youth 
librarians look to identifying new library user groups and tailoring ser- 
vices to their needs. Areas of service most likely to grow will be: 
(1) technological forms of information (high tech); (2) human responses 
through literature and nurturing (high touch); and (3) democratic and 
egalitarian approaches to supplying user wants and needs (direct touch). 
The techniques of marketing are ideally suited to addressing these needs of 
the future. 

Needs assessment is an ongoing process that demands constant reeval- 
uation. After data collection from market segment users, it may be found 
that Miss Muffet's new image as updated earlier is too sharp and a modified 
image is needed: Little Ms. Muffet / Can rough it and tough it / And face 
up to problems galore. / Demanding and gaining / Assertiveness training, 
/ She flinches at spiders no more. 

88 Managers and Missionaries 

The world needs to be told that youth librarians are a new breed. The 
assertive, knowledgeable, creative talent in the youth library field is 
impressive. Yes, youth services must be marketed, but the profession needs 
to market its most valuable resource its own personnel the professional 
youth librarian. 


Broderick, D. M., (Ed.) (1986, August/October). Guest editorial. Voice of Youth Advocates, 
9, 118. 

Brophy, B. (1986, 27 October). Children under stress. U.S. News and World Report, 101, 60. 

Conroy, B. (1984). Megatrend marketing: Creating the library's future. In G. T. Ford (Ed.), 
Marketing and the library (pp. 9-17). New York: Haworth Press. 

Decision Research Corporation. (1983). A survey of attitudes towards the Cuyahoga County 
Public Library. Cleveland: DRC. 

Dragon, A. C., & Leisner, T. (1984). The ABCs of implementing library marketing. In G. T. 
Ford (Ed.), Marketing and the library (pp. 34-41). New York: Haworth Press. 

Eldredge, J. (1986). Public relations. In R. Parent (Ed. ),ALA yearbook of library and informa- 
tion services: A review of library events 1985. (Vol. 11) (pp. 252-53). Chicago: ALA. 

Fox, S. R. (1984). The mirror makers: A history of American advertising and its creators. New 
York: Morrow. 

Greene, E., fe Cummins, J. (1983, Summer). Reading, libraries, and summer achievement. 
Top of the News, 39, 370-372. 

Heyns, B. (1978). Summer learning and the effects of schooling. New York: Academic Press. 

Hippenhammer, C. (1986, Spring). Managing children's library collections through objec- 
tive data. Top of the News, 42, 309-313. 

Hunsicker, Marya. (1973). Public relations in a children's room. In A. Angoff (Ed.), Public 
relations for libraries: Essays in communications techniques (pp. 1 1 7-3 1 ). Westport, CT: 
Greenwood Press. 

Kotler, P. (1982). Marketing for nonprofit organizations (2nd ed). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 

Matthews, A. J. (1984). Library market segmentation: An effective approach for meeting 
client needs. In G. T. Ford (Ed.), Marketing and the library (pp. 20-26). New York: 
Haworth Press. 

Naisbitt, J. (1982). Megatrends: Ten new directions transforming our lives. New York: 

Warner Books. 

'The National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The impera- 
tive for educational reform. Washington, DC: The Commission. 

O'Brien, P. M. (1981, Spring). An administrator speaks of services to youth. Top of the News, 
37, 243-246. 

Toffler, A. (1980). Third wave. New York: Morrow. 

Toffler, A. (1970). Future shock. New York: Random House. 

White, L. J. (1983). The public library in the 1980s: The problems of choice. Lexington, MA: 
Lexington Books. 


Assistant Professor 
Graduate School of Library & Information Science 

Simmons College 
Boston, Massachusetts 

The Right Stuff: Recruitment and Education 
for Children's and Young Adult Specialists 

"There was something ancient, primordial, irresistible about the chal- 
lenge of this stuff, no matter what a sophisticated and rational age one 
might think he lived in" (Wolfe, 1984, p. 22). In his exploration of the 
bonds of fraternity among the military test pilots who achieved heroic 
status as the early astronauts, Tom Wolfe was fascinated by an almost 
tangible but undefinable central quality by which its members were 
ranked. Energy, guts, bravery, idealism, and more seemed obvious traits, 
but somewhere beyond these lay an "ineffable quality" implicitly under- 
stood by the men in this special brotherhood. Theirs was a time of striving 
for recognition, for pride, and for legitimacy as they tested and extended 
the limits of their specialized occupation. In time they gained not only 
glory, but, more importantly, acceptance by their peers. And then the 
institutional structure in which they worked and the very world itself 
changed. Having achieved their place as "deserving occupants at the top of 
the pyramid of the right stuff" (Wolfe, 1984, p. 366), the importance of the 
fraternity and the ideal began to slip away. 

Not long ago a friend and colleague who is the head of children's 
services in a public library serving a community of about 40,000 was 
reflecting on problems of assessing the background and skills of applicants 
for a position as children's librarian. She was pointing out that the aca- 
demic and work experiences listed on the resume and application are often 
not very reliable indicators of the actual education or training the individ- 
ual has been provided. "You simply can't assume any common set of 
competencies," she commented. While the common sense of this seems 
pretty basic, don't we usually suppose that if a person has taken the 
requisite courses in library school, there will be at least a passing acquain- 
tance with some widely understood tenets of children's literature, say, or 
school librarianship or young adult services? 


90 Managers and Missionaries 

A similar but more formal set of statements regarding competencies 
was developed by Patsy Perritt and Kathleen Heim in an article for the 
Winter 1987 issue of Top of the News on the ALA-accredited master's 
degree as the basic professional credential for youth services librarians. 
They observe that: "National standards for youth services in librarianship, 
except for those in the school setting, have not been developed, utilized, 
and promoted by members of the profession, and this is one of the reasons 
educational programs for youth services lack centrality" (Perritt & Heim, 
1987, p. 154). One might add that, on an informal level, we do have 
something of a centrality of belief about the personal and professional 
characteristics and skills desirable for youth services librarians. We have 
pretty commonly held ideas about the right stuff for librarians serving 
children and adolescents, and these tend to be both rooted in long abiding 
ideals and to have developed some new tenets in response to shifts in 
management theory and political realities in libraries and schools. We 
have a strong collegiality based on idealism, pragmatism, and frustration 
about our status in the larger library profession. It is true that we have not 
developed structured definitions and programs which might effectively 
put youth services at the height we believe it deserves on the pyramid of 

What then is the right stuff? Who has the responsibility for identifying 
and developing it? How well is this being done? What can we as library 
educators, youth services librarians, and members of professional organi- 
zations do to make sure that it is done better? The following discussion will 
look at some of the formulations of professional competencies, comment 
on the relationship of these to curriculum offerings in library schools, 
examine some current issues and problems in professional education for 
youth services specialists, and finally suggest some action items for the 
agenda we hope will emerge from this Allerton conference. 

Professional Qualifications 

What about the contention that we don't have a set of national youth 
services standards upon which to construct and evaluate professional 
education? In the strictest sense this is true, of course, but let us look at the 
content and similarities in existing documents. The school library/media 
field, being both the most complex and the most formulated, is the logical 
place to begin. The national standards published in 1975 and to be 
replaced in the near future, stipulate that: "The media specialist holds a 
master's degree in media from a program that combines library and infor- 
mation science, educational communications and technology, and curric- 
ulum." This academic program is to develop a specified list of 
competencies, including, among others, planning and administration, 

Recruitment and Education 91 

analysis of user characteristics and information needs, media design and 
production, and interpretation and application of research (American 
Association of School Librarians, 1975, pp. 22-23). 

It is not mandated that the master's degree be from an accredited 
library school, and, as has been widely noted and discussed, school media 
specialists are subject to the requirements of certification regulations set by 
the individual states. From a pragmatic point of view, state regulations, 
being a condition of employment, generally take precedence over the 
national standards which lack a structured means of enforcement. Some- 
times the national and state requirements are similar or even congruent. As 
noted in Ann Franklin's 1984 survey of school library media certification 
requirements in each state, published in the January 1984 School Library 
Journal, some states include a requirement of an MLS, some levels of 
certification require a master's degree plus additional hours of study, and 
in many cases a number of stipulated hours short of a master's degree will 
suffice (Franklin, 1984, pp. 21-34). Presumably the lack of uniform appli- 
cation of the national standard causes some difficulty for individuals 
wishing to relocate from one state to another. 

Not only do the academic requirements and desired competencies for 
school library media specialists differ widely among states, but there are 
distinctly different opinions in the library education field as to whether the 
accredited library schools are the most appropriate providers of profes- 
sional education for such specialists. Jane Hannigan, in a wide-ranging 
examination of library education, has advocated moving "all educational 
responsibility for this professional to schools of education" (Hannigan, 
1984, p. 55). Perritt and Heim (1987), anxious to further the commonalities 
among youth services in the library schools and in professional practice, 
admit that one of the most important of the unresolved problems is 
"professional consensus as to the location of the educational component" 
(p. 156). In this largest of the youth specialties, and the only one to actually 
have national standards, there is no centrality as described earlier by these 

While there are no functional national standards for children's and 
young adult services, the widely recognized "Competencies for Librarians 
Serving Youth," developed by ALA's Young Adult Services Division 
(YASD), is generally considered prescriptive and useful as a guide for 
professional education and for the development of library positions. This 
document does not specify a level of academic achievement but stipulates 
specific areas of knowledge and skills pertaining to: leadership and profes- 
sionalism, knowledge of the client group, communication, administra- 
tion, knowledge of materials, access to information, and services. 
Competencies involved in knowledge of the client group include applying 
factual and interpretive information on adolescent psychology, growth 

92 Managers and Missionaries 

and development, sociology, and popular culture and also knowledge of 
the reading process in planning for materials and services. The manage- 
ment skills include identification and development of external funding, 
applying and conducting research, and monitoring legislation. Service 
capabilities include two that have been particular philosophical tenets of 
the young adult services field i.e., crisis intervention counseling and 
involving young adults in planning and implementing services for their 
age group (Young Adult Services Division, 1982, p. 51). The Board of 
Directors of the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) (1986) 
recently adopted recommendations of a long-range planning task force 
which included the development of a set of competencies for children's 
librarians, and the task has been assigned to the division's education 

In the absence of national children's services standards, many state 
library agencies and professional associations have developed standards in 
recent years or are now in the process of doing so. The Standards for Youth 
Services in Public Libraries of New York State include a list of competen- 
cies which are a close adaptation of the YASD competencies. Since the title 
of the original document designates "youth" rather than "young adults," 
the New York task force simply substituted the same term throughout the 
document wherever "young adults" had been used to designate the client 
group with a resulting list intended for use with both children's and young 
adult librarians. No indication is given of competencies which might be 
more germane to either one of the services. The YASD list was apparently 
intended primarily for use in library education since the competencies 
were all designated for "the student"; the New York list assigns them for 
"the librarian" (New York Library Association, 1984). 

The competencies stated in the standards for school library media 
centers are not markedly different from the YASD competencies, and, 
although both are probably due for further examination and discussion, 
there does seem to be enough common ground to develop a central set of 
skills and characteristics for librarians serving youth, both children and 
adolescents, whether in a public library setting or a school library media 

Competencies which are agreed upon and promulgated by national 
organizations set one sort of standard for professional education. Another 
useful standard is level of academic achievement. The master's degree from 
an ALA accredited library school has been the generally accepted require- 
ment for entry into professional librarianship, but, as previously mention- 
ed, different requirements often apply to a very substantial segment of the 
field, namely school librarianship. What of children's and young adult 
services in public libraries? Several of the state level standards recommend 
(most do not require) an M.L.S. for the librarian responsible for youth 

Recruitment and Education 93 

services at the local library. A number of state surveys of children's services 
provide interesting information about the academic credentials actually 
held by children's librarians. A 1978 survey of Illinois public libraries, for 
example, focused on many aspects of thirty-two libraries selected, among 
other reasons, for their reputed strength in services to children. It was 
found that seventeen, or a little better than 50 percent, of the librarians had 
an M.L.S. Six librarians had bachelor's degrees, and eight (25 percent) had 
less than a bachelor's degree (Richardson, 1978, pp. 136-137). A more 
recently published survey of 285 children's librarians in Michigan revealed 
that 136 (47.7 percent) had an M.L.S. In this instance, sixty-six individuals 
(23.1 percent) had less than a bachelor's degree, while the remaining 
eighty-three had bachelor's degrees or other degrees and certificates. In this 
study, 7.7 percent of the librarians were noted as attending school, but the 
levels of study were not specified. It was also found that 67 percent of the 
respondents had earned continuing education units (CEUs) (Todara, et al., 
1985, p. 5). 

The information from these surveys are important parts of the demo- 
graphics of our profession a subject to be explored further in this 
program which raise questions about professional competencies and 
credentials for youth services librarians. Provided we accept the assump- 
tion that the M.L.S. is desirable as the entry-level professional require- 
ment, how can we encourage its achievement by more librarians? Is it 
reasonable to suppose that all public and school libraries could or should 
have professionally educated librarians? How do we define professional? 
What are the educational needs and requirements of those youth services 
librarians who have not earned the professional degree? Clearly, various 
states have been struggling with some of these questions, though we lack 
cohesive information about the results of state efforts which we might draw 
upon for a strong national system on which to plan and promote profes- 
sional education in youth services. 

Just as all states have certification requirements, some states also 
certify librarians for the public library field usually on the basis of less 
complex requirements. The subject of certification is by no means new, but 
in recent years some writers have suggested that this idea deserves attention 
in the national scheme of regulating professional credentials. Standards 
and a mechanism for certification are sometimes advocated and 
disputed as an alternative to the present scheme of the M.L.S. as the 
preferred basic requirement (see Willett, 1984, pp. 13-23). Certification 
may also be seen as a system for ensuring competency at various levels of 
professional responsibility, and this notion ought to be considered at a 
national level as a potential means of strengthening both the provision of 
library services to youth and the role of youth services librarianship in the 
larger professional field. 

94 Managers and Missionaries 

Aside from philosophical interests and concern about professional- 
ism, there is a very practical matter which lends urgency to the notions of 
competencies and certification. At the present time the demand for librar- 
ians in the youth services specialties outstrips by far the supply of candi- 
dates entering the field through library schools. John Berry (1986) strongly 
stated the shortage of children's and young adult librarians in a recent 
Library Journal editorial (p. 4). The accompanying report on national 
placements of library school graduates for 1985 showed more librarians 
placed in public libraries than in any other type a situation occurring for 
the first time since 1977. Moreover, of the 2, 387 placements, 313 ( 13 percent) 
were in youth services with an almost even split between public and school 
librarians. The three largest specialties were children's services in public 
libraries (113 positions), children's services in school libraries (112 posi- 
tions), and business libraries (100 positions). Additionally, there were 
forty-five placements in youth services in public libraries, forty in youth 
services in school libraries, and three in children's services "other" (Lear- 
mont 8c Van Houten, 1986, p. 35). It must be admitted that some large areas 
of librarianship, such as reference services, were not delineated in the 
specialty listings, but youth services librarians are nonetheless an impres- 
sive population among the recently placed graduates of library schools. 

Placements of graduates are only one part of the supply and demand 
picture. We don't have an accurate accounting of the total number of 
professional vacancies nationwide, but, based on records for just one 
region, one can surmise that there is a very large shortfall. In New England 
alone there were 771 professional positions posted during 1985. The 
library school at Simmons with by far the largest number of placements 
of any library school placed only 141 graduates (Learmont & Van 
Houten, pp. 32-33). Thirteen of the graduates were placed in foreign 
countries and another 11 went to states outside the region, leaving 123 
individuals to fill only about 16 percent of the vacancies. Youth services 
positions numbered 159 (20.6 percent) of the total (Simmons College, 
1986). Much smaller numbers of placements were made by the library 
schools at Southern Connecticut University and the University of Rhode 
Island, and presumably a few individuals came into the region from other 
states. However, the gap is still large, and faculty and administration at 
Simmons would testify from the numbers of phone calls from desperate 
library administrators that the crisis is of far greater proportions than 
indicated in the Library Journal survey. 

The shortage of library school graduates has several implications for 
youth services. Some vacant positions even those offering fine salaries 
are going unfilled. Some are being filled by graduates who did not antici- 
pate going into these specialties and had no relevant specialty coursework 
at all. Some are being filled by so-called preprofessionals, who have widely 

Recruitment and Education 95 

divergent amounts and kinds of experience. Some of them will settle in com- 
fortably and perform very competently while others will struggle along at 
a mediocre level; all can be paid lower salaries than a professional candidate. 

The Massachusetts Library Association is busily developing chil- 
dren's services standards which will state competencies and recommend an 
M.L.S. children's librarian for every library (Massachusetts Library Associ- 
ation, 1988). A large part of the impetus for developing standards in this 
instance came from library administrators concerned about the current 
shortage of qualified children's librarians. State certification of children's 
librarians has been discussed but only tentatively. This is a state and a 
region that has employed effective recruitment strategies for youth 
services e.g., excellent coverage of the shortage in metropolitan and 
suburban newspapers, a slide-tape presentation to encourage library trust- 
ees to support professional levels of children's services, and a brochure on 
youth services careers for distribution by local libraries to high schools and 
colleges. Children's librarians have worked with their professional col- 
leagues to pass minimum salary recommendations for the state; while 
salaries are certainly uneven in the state, there has been a noticeable 
upward trend since the minimum salary has been advocated (and the level 
has been raised three times in just a few years). Enrollment in the youth 
services courses at Simmons is strong and rising but still falls far short of 
the demand since many of these students already fill professional posi- 
tions. The complexities of recruitment have received attention in national 
programs and journals, but the national professional organizations have 
not moved beyond discussion to a strong, concerted program or projects to 
address the problem. 

Librarians sometimes tend to blame the library schools for failures 
both in attracting students to the field and in educating them adequately to 
meet library needs. The general antipathy between practicing profession- 
als and library schools has been variously documented (Conant, 1980) and 
has certainly been shared in part by youth services librarians. The wide- 
spread assumption that library schools don't support youth services was 
exacerbated in the early 1980s when library schools in several states were 
closing, declining to fill faculty positions in the youth services specialties, 
or transferring responsibility for the youth services curriculum to other 
schools or departments of the parent institution. State professional associ- 
ations did battle with the library schools in several instances, and the youth 
divisions of ALA endorsed their efforts and expressed concern to library 
school deans. Some efforts succeeded in gaining renewed support of youth 
services in the library schools, but others failed, leaving great gaps in 
professional education in some parts of the country. 

One study was undertaken by this author and Melody Allen, consul- 
tant for children's services at the Rhode Island State Library, to document 

96 Managers and Missionaries 

the alleged deterioration of support for youth services in the library 
schools. A survey of all the accredited schools was conducted in the spring 
of 1985 asking about course offerings, faculty, enrollment, continuing 
education, and other matters. The results were encouraging in many 
respects but did not provide the desired comprehensive view since just 
thirty-eight of the sixty-seven schools (56.7 percent) accredited at the time 
provided usable returns. There was evidence of a good array of regularly 
offered core courses in children's and young adult services and school 
librarianship in the majority of schools. Courses tended to be offered by 
tenured or tenure-track faculty, and the number of these positions was 
healthy if not large a fact that seems even more positive when viewed in 
light of the published placement figures for the individual schools (Allen & 
Bush, 1987). These would suggest quite small enrollments in youth ser- 
vices specialties in many cases; it was notable that schools often did not 
provide enrollment information. It was not possible to establish enroll- 
ment trends for the three-year period queried. The returns indicated very 
few students doing advanced level specialization beyond the M.L.S. a 
very serious situation in a set of specialties badly in need of deepening and 
strengthening their theoretical base. The most positive information 
gleaned in the study was the array of faculty interests, projects, and teach- 
ing responsibilities. Several schools known to have strong youth services 
faculty did not respond to the survey, and, even without these individuals, 
the pool of talent and leadership reflected in the returns was truly 

The leadership of library school faculty in the youth services fields 
merits attention since these individuals have been particularly effective in 
professional associations in recent years. In ALA's Association for Library 
Service to Children (ALSC), three of the past five presidents were library 
educators, and, during several of these years, faculty have also served as 
presidents of the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and 
of the Young Adult Services Division (YASD). Many more such individu- 
als have served on the divisions' boards of directors and have chaired 
committees; some have gone on to major responsibilities in other units of 
ALA. These individuals continue to provide leadership, to keep our inter- 
ests very much alive in the library schools, and to contribute significantly 
to development of professional programs such as this Allerton conference. 
(The notion of a national conference of children's, school, and young adult 
librarians to forge a joint agenda for the future was first proposed by 
Shirley Aaron of Florida State University when she was president of AASL 
and was further developed by a very active ALSC and YASD member, 
Leslie Edmonds of the University of Illinois.) Though bonds between a 
significant number of library educators and other youth services profes- 
sionals are indeed strong, it probably cannot be said that librarians in these 

Recruitment and Education 97 

specialties have any greater trust of library schools than their other librar- 
ian colleagues. It may well be, however, that we don't actually suffer the 
practitioner/educator gap to the degree sometimes noted in parts of the 
library field. In looking toward a future agenda, there ought to be oppor- 
tunity for further creative partnerships and collaborations. 

In spite of the noted commitment of many library schools to youth 
services, we still don't have adequate information about the actual quality 
of professional education in these specialties, and, of course, it is known 
informally that there is a lack of good course offerings at some schools. As 
library schools have suffered declining enrollments and some have been 
closed in recent years, a growing number of writers have suggested that the 
professional schools ought to become individually more specialized rather 
than each trying to serve the broad spectrum of librarianship. Ralph 
Conant, in his well-known study of library education sponsored by ALA 
and funded by the H. W. Wilson Co., strongly recommended a national 
plan which would further decrease the number of schools and would 
"recommend an appropriate distribution of specializations among the 
surviving library schools" (Conant, 1980, p. 62). Jane Anne Hannigan, 
long-time library educator and youth services specialist, also raised this 
possibility in a substantial examination of how excellence might be 
achieved in library education. "[PJerhaps the time has come for library 
schools to recognize that they can be qualitatively superior only by limit- 
ing the number of specialized programs they offer and thus concentrating 
limited resources" (Hannigan, 1984, p. 6). 

Such suggestions of narrowing the focus of schools and decreasing the 
specializations of each school are more than a little unsettling to youth 
services librarians since they suspect that library schools would follow the 
example of many public libraries and school districts that have cut back 
support for library services to children and adolescents in bad financial 
times. This might not be exactly the case since library schools do respond 
(at least somewhat) to the demands of the marketplace, and there are 
increased postings and placements in youth services. 

The shortage of librarians is widespread, occurring in many parts of 
the country, and of course many individuals who are potential youth 
services librarians are women with families who are returning to the work 
force most would be unable to go to another state for their professional 
education. We must continue to provide a basic level of specialization in 
youth services in every library school. But we must also look more carefully 
at the proposition of identifying, promoting, and building upon those 
programs which offer greater depth of specialization. In a recent article on 
the future of services to young adults, Gerald Hodges (1987), a faculty 
member at the University of Iowa and long active in the leadership of 
YASD, proposes that the three ALA youth divisions make it a top priority 

98 Managers and Missionaries 

to identify several programs and develop funding to support these as 
models or centers of strong specialization (p. 173). 

While the earlier discussion focuses on library schools, these institu- 
tions are by no means the sole providers of youth services professional 
education. Continuing education, in-service training, and self- 
development are all essential in building the skills and knowledge of youth 
services librarians. As with the academic programs, there is a lack of 
comprehensive information and consensus about what needs to be pro- 
vided and how best to provide it. In some cases there is cooperation between 
libraries, professional associations, and library schools to plan and provide 
educational opportunities, but, generally, communication and shared 
planning are haphazard. This is not to suggest that all education has to be 
jointly sponsored or conform to some master plan, but it seems obvious 
that educational opportunity for the individual youth services librarian 
could be strengthened considerably through the clarifying of roles and 
increased sharing of assessment and planning. The reporting of good 
programs is not always as full or widespread as we might like, but, as with 
the academic offerings, there are very good models upon which to build. A 
recent example is an Iowa program reported in considerable detail in the 
Rural Library Service Newsletter (Cresap, 1986, p. 14). Planned by Marilyn 
Nickelsberg of the State Library of Iowa for children's librarians and 
public library directors responsible for children's services in rural com- 
munities, this program was intended to provide management training for 
staff who have little or no professional education. The intensive two-day 
program gave some seventy-five librarians an opportunity to acquire new 
insights and techniques for planning, developing, and assessing children's 
services. In addition to informative content and a stimulating format, this 
program was exemplary in other ways. The planner was extremely effec- 
tive in collaborating she selected a children's consultant from another 
state library and a faculty member from a distant library school as her 
presenters and had them share the program planning from the outset. She 
also publicized and documented the program carefully, fully intending 
that other states be encouraged to emulate this effort. Her well-attended, 
substantial program served both her audience and other education provid- 
ers very well indeed. 

There is a great mass of workshops, programs, and training sessions 
which provide educational opportunities to youth services librarians each 
year at the local, state, national, and even international level. Some of these 
respond to local needs and others to very specialized interests, while others 
have widespread appeal and may or may not be well publicized. In this 
so-called information age, it would be wonderful indeed if we had some 
central mechanism for collecting and disseminating information about 
educational program offerings; theoretically, at least, this would provide 

Recruitment and Education 99 

greater opportunity for individuals to avail themselves of programs and 
would also enable us to discern the patterns of what is being provided and 
what might be missing. 

There are many issues related to nonacademic educational opportuni- 
ties which need to be addressed. The previously mentioned survey of 
library schools included a component on continuing education offerings 
which indicated programs in a broad range of subject areas. However, the 
most frequently offered programs and those with the highest attendance 
were predominantly those concerned with children's books and storytell- 
ing. Programs related to computers were also offered somewhat frequently, 
and there were fewer offerings related to management of youth services 
(Allen fc Bush, 1987). Lacking a strong philosophical and theoretical basis 
in regard to education and training, program providers generally respond 
to the marketplace, offering what they believe the clientele wants and/or 
needs. Needs assessment as part of program planning, motivating youth 
services staff toward more diverse professional development, and better 
funding for educational opportunities are all subjects which ought to be 
on our agenda. 

Youth services have been largely driven by idealism and energy. In 
recent years, with shifting economic, social, and political winds and 
changes in institutional structures and practices, we've begun to find 
legitimacy and status in the larger realm of librarianship being tested. The 
questions of defining, developing, and demonstrating individual compe- 
tencies are critical. The tasks are challenging, and the climate is excellent 
for accomplishing them the current shortage of youth services librarians 
has created a wide awareness of our value, and our leadership is more 
widely respected at all levels than we have realized. We must seize the 
moment and develop an agenda to: 

1. Enlarge and strengthen recruitment efforts. 

2. Clarify our definition of essential competencies and establish desired 
levels of competence. 

3. Deal with the complex issues of professional credentials and 

4. Strengthen youth librarians' theoretical base and support advanced 

5. Develop better communication, coordination, and planning between 
various categories of education providers. 

6. Develop and support model programs in library schools, libraries, and 
professional associations. 

100 Managers and Missionaries 


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[Boston?]: MLA. 

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Services. (1984). Standards for youth services in public libraries of New York State. New 
York: NYLA. 

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Springfield, ILflllinois State Library. 

Perritt, P. H., & Heim, K. M. (1987, Winter). ALA-accredited master's degree: Considerations 
for youth services librarianship. Top of the News, 43, 149-155. 

Simmons College, Graduate School of Library and Information Science. (1986). Placement 
statistics for graduates, 1985. New England job vacancies by specialization. 

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Michigan. Lansing, MI: Michigan Library Association. 

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ence. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 25, 13-23. 

Wolfe, T. (1984). The right stuff. New York: Bantam. 

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adults deserve the best: Competencies for librarians serving youth. School Library Jour- 
nal, 29, 51. 


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New directions for young adult services (pp. 163-79). New York: R. R. Bowker. 
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Libraries, 16, 8-17. 
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Implications for practice. Emergency Librarian, 9(5), 6-17. 

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Greer, R. C. (1980). Information transfer: A conceptual model for librarianship, information 
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Graduate School of Library Service 
University of Alabama 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama 

Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 

The process of licensing shapes the future of the profession by restricting 
entrance to those who meet certain qualifications. Licensing is a gatekeep- 
ing function, at least theoretically protecting the public from incompetent 
performance. Before we assess where we are and where we hope to be in 
relation to this topic, distinctions need to be made among terms. 

Credentials is a general term indicating that the holder is duly entitled 
to claim a certain status. In librarianship, the M.L.S. degree is often held to 
be the requisite credential for entrance into the field. The term competen- 
cies is more specific, indicating a listing of abilities and skills, often 
task-oriented, that one should possess to be a good practitioner. Certifica- 
tion is an endorsement to practice in a specialized area, such as medical or 
school librarianship. While these terms apply to individuals, accreditation 
applies to educational programs which meet certain standards of quality 
and relevance in preparing future practitioners. 

Accreditation of programs leading toward the M.L.S. degree is con- 
ferred by the American Library Association (ALA). Accreditation of the 
more narrowly-focused specialization of school librarianship is a function 
of the National Council on Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) 
and, usually, a state department of education. 

The current picture of licensing for the youth specialization is dispa- 
rate and dismaying. Youth services librarians are separated into two distinct 
groups depending on the environment in which they work i.e., school or 
public libraries. Factors related to their establishing competence to prac- 
tice focus entirely on their environment rather than on skills and philoso- 
phies needed by all. There is virtually no licensing for public library youth 
specialists at the local level only at systems or state levels and then only in 
certain states. When a credential is required, it is ordinarily the M.L.S. 
degree. The local public library, if it has a designated youth specialist at 
all, usually hires a person who likes children or young adults, is relatively 
outgoing and articulate, and will work for minimum wages or little more. 


104 Managers and Missionaries 

In the school setting, the certification required at entry level is gener- 
ally the same as that for beginning teachers and it is determined state by 
state. The 1986-87 edition of Requirements for Certification (Burks, 1986) 
and the most recent compilation of this information in School Library 
Journal (Franklin, 1984) indicates that wide variation exists in courses of 
study, competency testing, level of certification, and nomenclature. To 
illustrate, fewer than half the states require a course in children's or young 
adult literature for certification. Twenty-three different titles are used for 
the school library media specialist. Fewer than ten states require a master's 
degree for initial certification. 

The disheartening reality is that licensing practices for the youth 
specialization separate youth librarians from each other. Of equal impor- 
tance, these practices cut them off from the rest of the field of librarianship, 
because youth librarians can be, and usually are, certified after completion 
of an undergraduate program. Other librarians generally begin to practice 
their craft after receiving an M.L.S. degree from a school accredited by the 
American Library Association. This important difference in educational 
preparation undoubtedly contributes to and exacerbates the feelings of 
isolation and inferiority repeatedly expressed by youth specialists (Ballett 
& Cornell, 1986). 

Standards have traditionally been used to raise the level of service. 
They set a minimum level of support for materials, services, and personnel. 
Ideally, licensing is related directly or indirectly to these standards. Youth 
librarianship does have such standards, but for various reasons they have 
lost their power to effect improvements in service. 

The most recent public library standards are a 1966 revision of stan- 
dards published in 1956 that focused on development of county and 
regional library systems (ALA, 1967). Among the weaknesses charged to 
these standards are an emphasis on the institution rather than on services, 
on input rather than on output measures, lack of challenge for larger 
libraries but impossible expectations for small libraries, and requirements 
based on opinions of librarians rather than on solid research. These 
considerations plus other projects of the Public Library Association (PLA) 
during the early 1970s (Lynch, 1982) prepared the way for A Planning 
Process for Public Libraries (American Library Association, 1980), a docu- 
ment that represents a shift from a single national standard to locally- 
determined standards. 

The manual provides guidelines to help libraries develop a set of 
standards that are appropriate for their community and which reflect their 
own philosophy. Since the delivery of this paper, new school library media 
standards have been published (ALA & AECT, 1988). The planning pro- 
cess has the advantage of involving local groups who will ultimately be 
responsible for funding but has the drawback of demanding time- 

Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 105 

consuming, external participation. Realistically, there are situations in 
which a local group simply cannot be sufficiently trained or committed to 
carry through an involved planning process. In these cases, standards 
structured at the national level could help to identify service goals for local 
libraries. Meanwhile, during the last few years, several states have devel- 
oped standards or guidelines for services to youth e.g., New York, Virgin- 
ia, Illinois, and New Jersey (New York Library Association, 1984; Cram, 
1984, p. 91; Illinois Library Association, 1981; New Jersey State Library, 
1986). Their impact on services has yet to be assessed, but they offer models 
that can be used as ammunition by those in other states hoping to improve 
their own services. 

In the school setting, the question of standards is a hotly debated issue 
this year. James Liesener, chairman of the American Association of School 
Librarians (AASL)XAssociation for Educational Communications and 
Technology (AECT) Standards Writing Committee, reported to the AASL 
Minneapolis Conference audience in September that his committee has an 
outline and schedule for their work that will permit a 1987 publication 
date for new school library standards (Flagg, 1986). 

Of the three most recent sets of school library standards (1960, 1969, 
and 1975), those of 1960 are generally considered to have had the greatest 
impact and those of 1975 the least. Several factors account for the differ- 
ence. The country's economic and social climate in 1960 was right for this 
project. A generous grant ($100,000) from the Council on Library Resour- 
ces funded a dissemination and publicity campaign for the 1960 Standards. 
The Knapp Foundation granted $1,130,000 to fund a nationwide demon- 
stration project. A great deal of federal money was available and specifi- 
cally earmarked for school library media programs. Many schools greatly 
expanded their programs to reflect the 1960 Standards or created them 
where none had previously existed. The 1960 Standards seemed attainable, 
where the 1975 ones did not. In materials, for example, the 1960 Standards 
called for ten books per student, the 1969 Standards mandated twenty 
books or audiovisual units, and the 1975 Standards again doubled the 
figure, recommending forty items per student. Although the term items is 
sufficiently vague to permit some latitude in interpretation, meeting this 
standard would nevertheless have been difficult because funding for educa- 
tion since 1975 has been less abundant, and retrenchment has become the 
norm. One finds schools today whose programs do not even measure up to 
the 1960 Standards in terms of resources or staffing. A handout distributed 
at AASL's Minneapolis conference highlighting the 1985-86 Survey of 
Public School Libraries and Media Centers, reported that 93 percent of 
public schools had media centers and that 79 percent were served by a 
certified library media specialist part of the time (AASL, 1986). 

Another factor in the successful implementation of the 1960 Standards 

106 Managers and Missionaries 

and the somewhat less successful implementation of the 1969 Standards 
was that persons important to their implementation were involved in their 
development. Representatives from approximately twenty education 
agencies, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Devel- 
opment and the Department of Rural Education, were members of advi- 
sory committees. No doubt this involvement greatly aided in spreading the 
word and marshaling support for the two sets of standards. The 7975 
Standards, on the other hand, had no such advisory committee. Dissemina- 
tion efforts were mostly restricted to prepublication announcements and 
postpublication critiques in library literature. These evaluations found 
the standards to be jargon-laden, vague, and incomprehensible. They did 
not receive endorsements by state boards of education and have been 
generally ignored by everyone except us. 

So standards in general have reflected political realities; they have 
frequently failed as change agents. Perhaps improvement in the way 
standards are created might make them more effective, or perhaps it would 
help if someone had a vested interest in implementing them. Or perhaps 
standards are not the best means to bring about improvement in service; 
and while standards are necessary, they are not sufficient, certainly in 
relation to licensing. 

There are two major problems with current licensing practices: ( 1 ) the 
process is not producing the kind of people doing the kinds of jobs we 
want; and (2) the process is not providing the numbers we need to fill 
existing positions. As to the first concern, we could all share horror stories, 
tales that we would like to think are exaggerated but know are not e.g., 
the team of two school media specialists in one high school who spend six 
weeks of the school year doing nothing but writing overdue notices, who 
readily admit that they do nothing that could not be done as well by a 
bright tenth grader, and who don't care; the public library children's 
person whose goal (unstated but real) is never to have any item in the 
collection that could be offensive to anyone. Few would argue that youth 
librarianship in general has attracted capable, highly motivated practi- 
tioners. Ken Haycock (1985) said: "There are still too many teacher- 
librarians who are paid professional salaries for being effective 
homemakers, book exchangers, and all round martyrs" (p. 108). James 
Liesener (1985) also acknowledged that "we are having difficulty attract- 
ing the level of talent that we once did" (p. 17). Jane Hannigan (1984), 
writing in Libraries and the Learning Society, observed that: "As a field we 
seem to accept and tolerate a large measure of rank incompetence in 
practice" (p. 31). 

Many factors contribute to the difficulty of attracting capable people 
to youth librarianship. Financial incentives are comparatively low, as are 
status and image. The workplace is often pervaded by infantilism, with 

Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 107 

little trust, respect, or autonomy bestowed on the youth specialist. Capable 
women and ethnic minorities now have options to enter fields formerly 
dominated by males and whites and are less likely to settle into education 
and librarianship. However, a greater hindrance is the fact that, especially 
for youth specialists in the school setting, there is no consensus within 
either the library or the school community what their roles should be. The 
professional literature, written mostly by library educators, overflows with 
convictions about proper roles. Haycock (1985) says: "The very nature of 
the role.. .is that of initiator and change agent" (p. 105). Liesener empha- 
sizes the mediation function and views the youth specialist as an informa- 
tion intermediary. Unfortunately these terms do not communicate a clear 
message to prospective students or employers. Philip Turner (1985) has 
simplified the terminology and called his book on the role of the school 
library media specialist, Helping Teachers Teach (see also "Future of 
School Library Media Preparation," 1987). 

When school principals do not know the potential of the school media 
program, and recent research documents the fact that they do not (Ballet 8c 
Cornell, 1986), failure is inevitable. The library may become the caretaker 
for students during the teachers' preparation periods, the repository for 
driver's education students who cannot all be out driving at one time, or 
the rainy day place for anyone who cannot be outside. Teachers, of course, 
conclude that the librarian as chief clerk has a soft job, and the youth 
specialist's image and status are encoded in stereotypic and stale jokes. 
Burnout and mediocrity follow rather naturally. 

Evaluation practices contribute to another kind of failure. When basic 
competencies lists are compiled, items included too often fail to distin- 
guish the librarian's role from the classroom teacher's role, and librarians 
fall into the trap of teaching hour after hour of library skills in a vacuum, 
out of context, and useless for students' learning. Preparation programs 
also receive and deserve a great deal of the criticism for turning out youth 
specialists who either do not know or do not care what they are about. 

The idea of listing basic competencies for the youth specialist and 
setting goals and measuring performance based on the list is not a bad idea. 
In fact, if a competency list goes beyond task orientation and includes 
attitudes and qualities of personality like empathy and caring, its use can 
be very helpful in establishing roles and scope of work for the youth 
specialist. The Young Adult Services Division (1982) list, "Competencies 
for Librarians Serving Youth," has this potential. It was developed origi- 
nally to circulate among library school faculty, to encourage their develop- 
ing or identifying courses that would help newly-graduated youth 
professionals to have the needed competencies. Happily, this listing has 
been found useful by practitioners. The New York Library Association's 
Standards for Youth Services in Public Libraries of New York State (1984) 

108 Managers and Missionaries 

adapted it to include the entire spectrum of youth services and not just 
young adult services. 

The second problem, that of numbers, is also difficult. Some prepara- 
tion programs put a great deal of energy into thinking through the kind of 
people they are training and the curriculum they offer, only to have the 
system subverted when demand exceeds supply. In a crunch and we 
always seem to be in a crunch exceptions to the credentialing system are 
made. Poorly-trained and unmotivated people are placed in positions they 
will cling to for the rest of their lives. 

Rectifying the situation requires a realistic appraisal of the financial 
resources that are likely to be available. The theory of wages that our 
society has adopted is one that pays handsomely for the professions of 
medicine, law, and business on the grounds that medicine protects our life, 
law protects our property, and business creates jobs for other people. Other 
societies may have similar priorities but allocate resources differently to 
reach these goals. For example, an allergy-sufferer in this country con- 
sulted a physician who tested her for fifty-two allergies and designed a shot 
uniquely for her. When she moved to England, her physician, without any 
pretesting, administered a standard shot covering the three most common 
allergies. It worked and no further testing was presumed necessary. When 
the Chinese in the 1960s asked the question, How shall we improve the 
health of our people? the answer was the training of a core of medical 
technicians called barefoot doctors who could treat and restore health to a 
high percentage of those who were ill. 

Our society is apparently unwilling to increase substantially the 
funding for education and librarianship. Hence we need to ask the follow- 
ing questions. How can resources be allocated differently to provide a more 
productive environment for both children and young adults and the youth 
librarians who serve them? How can the licensing process be altered to 
effect this needed reallocation? 

In my opinion the report of The Holmes Group (1986), Tomorrow's 
Teachers, a plan for the reform of teacher education, provides a model 
which youth librarianship could profitably consider. The Holmes Group 
realized that reforming teacher education involves not only colleges of 
education but many others i.e., the undergraduate programs of colleges 
and universities, the schools in which teachers work, state departments of 
education which license teachers, and society's willingness to pay for 
improved teaching. The Holmes Group recommendation related to licens- 
ing is that a differentiated staffing pattern be established which licenses at 
the instructor, professional teacher, and career professional teacher levels. 
The latter two credentials require preparation at the graduate level plus 
demonstration of effective practice. They are considered professional certi- 
fications and are renewable and tenure-earning. The former requires prep- 

Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 109 

aration at the undergraduate level and passing examinations which test 
subject-matter competence. It is not considered a professional certification, 
is not renewable or tenure-earning, and does not permit the bearer to 
practice autonomously but only to work under the supervision of a career 
professional teacher. The reward structure would also be differentiated 
monetarily and also in number of opportunities to engage in a variety of 
workday activities commensurate with skill, preparation, and interest. 

Adapting this model to youth librarianship would involve changes in 
many details. A differentiated licensing pattern would, however, recognize 
and appropriately reward different levels of commitment, preparation, 
and activity. In the school setting the instructor librarian would have an 
undergraduate major and tested subject-matter competence in one of the 
disciplines of the sciences, social sciences, or humanities. Working under 
the supervision of a career professional librarian, the instructor librarian 
would carry on a number of activities e.g., some clerical (keeping circula- 
tion records), some managerial (supervising student assistants), some 
related to reading motivation (reading aloud, storytelling, booktalking), 
some to teaching (how to use indexes). 

The professional librarian would, in addition to satisfying the 
instructor-level requirements, also have a master's degree in librarianship 
and would have passed an intellectually defensible competency examina- 
tion in that area. The professional librarian would function independently 
and would both conduct learning activities with students and consult with 
teachers, other support staff, and administrators to plan and design 
instructional units. The career professional librarian would have demon- 
strated effective performance at the professional librarian level. Through a 
combination of further education and identification of interest and ability 
in a specialized area such as supervising instructors or practicum stu- 
dents, carrying on research, participating with a university in training 
librarians the career professional librarian would demonstrate ability to 
work in positions of authority in both the library and the school. Activities 
of the career professional librarian would emphasize the advocacy role and 
include contacts with students, teachers, administrators, universities, state 
departments of education, and other community and professional policy- 
making groups. 

One of the advantages of a differentiated licensing process is its ability 
to respond to the disequilibrium between supply and demand. At present, 
shortages in qualified personnel result in lowering standards and admit- 
ting the poorly-trained to permanent positions. The differentiated pattern 
would allow filling vacancies at the instructor level. If the person hired 
wished to become a professional, there would be a period of years during 
which the appropriate training could take place. If the person did not 
make a commitment to the profession, the certificate would expire after 

110 Managers and Missionaries 

five years and employment would be terminated. Taxpayers might be 
spared some expensive mistakes. The process also has the potential to 
encourage commitment to and investment in the profession by talented 
persons who desire some occupational mobility and choice. Their 
expanded career opportunities and rewards would cut down on the ten- 
dency to settle into boredom or unexamined routines and would provide 
incentives for continued growth and development of diverse interests. 

In the public library setting the differentiated licensing pattern would 
need to take into account the size, demography, and funding of the local 
public library plus other factors related to public library development. It is 
nevertheless desirable for the Public Library Association in cooperation 
with the Association for Library Service to Children and the Young Adult 
Services Division all divisions of the American Library Association to 
formulate a differentiated credentialing process that recognizes current 
reality and at the same time challenges communities to improve youth 
services. The professional certification for children's or young adult librar- 
ians should continue to be the M.L.S. degree, as Perritt and Heim (1987) 
have reiterated persuasively. For those individuals for whom this certifica- 
tion is impossible to acquire, or for those communities who cannot afford 
to pay for the professional certification, there needs to be an equivalent to 
the barefoot doctor training and certification. (I hesitate to call this the 
barefoot youth specialist certification, though the nomenclature may fit 
the salary scale!) Some service is preferable to no service for young people 
who live in rural, small, or poor communities (Vavrek, 1982). 


Two major problems affect current licensing practices for youth 

1 . The process has not produced the kind of people doing the kind of jobs 
that are needed. 

2. The process has not provided the numbers needed to fill existing 

Solutions to these problems cannot address the licensing process 
alone; they must involve a systems approach, analyzing the total environ- 
ment in which youth specialists work. Licensing is influenced by prepara- 
tion programs, accrediting agencies, state boards of education, state law, 
national standards, success or failure of those already licensed, the work- 
place, research, and costs at all levels. 

The actions that could result in more effective credentialing practices 
are as multifaceted as the problems. These are: 

1 . Develop national and state standards or guidelines for youth services in 
both school and public libraries. These documents must articulate 

Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 1 1 1 

clearly what the program of services intends to accomplish and what 
roles the youth librarian needs to assume. These documents must 
eschew obfuscation. They must be straightforward and free of jargon so 
that we can coalesce around them and use them to spread the word to the 
uninformed or uncommitted. 

Examine ways to improve the quality of the product i.e., the youth 
librarian. This examination should include scrutiny of what goes into 
the training process (input measures) and what is produced (output 
measures). Accreditation practices should screen programs and func- 
tion as a gatekeeper at the input level. Competency testing at the output 
stage should assure the individual's achievement of a minimum level of 
knowledge and expertise. 

Is there a way to toughen the accreditation requirements for pro- 
grams that train youth librarians without raising the cost of accredita- 
tion to an exorbitant level? Single-purpose programs that train school 
library media specialists range from the poorest to the best available 
preparation. Should ALA or AASL be responsible for accreditation of 
these programs rather than NCATE, or should ALA/ AASL investigate 
ways to participate in the NCATE accreditation reviews? How can 
ALA's own Committee on Accreditation (CO A) be persuaded to scru- 
tinize more closely the quality of training youth specialists receive in 
general-purpose ALA-accredited M.L.S. programs? Is an attempt to get 
more youth librarians appointed to COA site visitation teams worth the 
effort involved? 

Competency testing has often been a joke, failing to discriminate 
between the fit and the unfit. A highly charged political issue, it has 
unfortunately pitted professional educators against state government 
officials over who shall determine the proper credentials for those 
entering the profession (The Alabama Librarian, 1982, p. 4). With 
appropriate research applied to test construction and validation, how- 
ever, the adequacy and fairness of such tests could be established, and 
they could contribute to protecting the public from an inferior product. 
Work toward a differentiated staffing and licensing pattern that 
obviates the current practice of hiring poorly trained personnel for 
permanent positions when demand exceeds supply. The Holmes 
Group report, Tomorrow's Teachers, may serve as a model because: 
(a) it is relatively free of professional jargon and communicates to an 
educated reader from any discipline; and (b) there are many parallels 
between teaching and youth librarianship, including generally low 
professional status and image, licensing at the undergraduate level, and 
the importance of youth advocacy. 
Speak with a strong, unified voice from national professional 

112 Managers and Missionaries 

associations, especially among the three youth divisions of the 

American Library Association. 

Issues related to licensing persons to practice a profession that affects 
the public good are inevitably complex and confounding. Licensing for 
youth librarianship fits the pattern. The future is likely to present a 
labyrinth, not a paved highway for our convenience. Like Theseus in the 
labyrinth of the Cretan King Minos, we need courage, imagination, 
shrewd planning, and belief in ourselves if we are to be victorious. The 
three youth divisions of the American Library Association are poised to 
adventure, accepting the ambiguities of the task, and hanging on, as 
Theseus did to Ariadne's thread, for dear life. 


American Association of School Librarians. (1986). Highlights of the 1985-86 survey of pub- 
lic school libraries and media centers-early tabulations. Chicago: ALA. 

American Association of School Librarians and Association for Educational Communica- 
tions and Technology. (1975). Media programs: District and School. Chicago: ALA. 

American Library Association. American Association of School Librarians. (1960). Stan- 
dards for school library programs. Chicago: ALA. 

American Library Association and National Education Association. (1969). Standards for 
school media programs. Chicago: ALA. 

American Library Association. Public Library Association. (1967). Minimum standards for 
public library systems, 1966. Chicago: ALA, PLA. 

Ballet, R. M., & Cornell, R. A. (1986). Professionalizing our profession: Twentieth-century 
countdown. In S. L. Aaron & P. R. Scales (Eds.), School library media annual 1986 (pp. 
173-82). Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited. 

Burks, M. P. ( 1 986). Requirements for certification for elementary schools, secondary schools, 
junior colleges (51st Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Cram, L. (1984, Fall). Young adult services guidelines for Virginia. Public Libraries, 23, 91. 

Flagg, G. (1986, November). Standards status. American Libraries, 17, 740. 

Franklin, A. Y.(1984, January). School library media certification requirements: 1984 update. 
School Library Journal, 30, 23-28. 

Hannigan, J. A. (1984). Vision to purpose to power: A quest for excellence in the education of 
library and information science professionals. In Libraries and the learning society: 
Papers in response to "A nation at risk" (pp. 22-62). Chicago: American Library 

Haycock, K. (1985, Spring). Strengthening the foundations for teacher-librarianship. School 
Library Media Quarterly, 13^, 102-109. 

The Holmes Group. (1986). Tomorrow's teachers. East Lansing, MI: The Holmes Group. 

Illinois Library Association. Children's Librarians Section. (1981). Foundations of quality: 
Guidelines for public library service to children. Chicago: Illinois Library Association. 

Liesener, J. W. (1985, Fall). Learning at risk: School library media programs in an informa- 
tion world. School Library Media Quarterly, 14, 11-20. 

Lynch, M. J. (1982). The Public Library Association and public library planning. Journalof 
Library Administration, 2, 30-40. 

New Jersey State Library. Children's Services in Public Libraries. Guidelines Committee. 
(1986). Guidelines for children's services in public libraries of New Jersey. Trenton, NJ: 
New Jersey State Library. 

New York Library Association. (1984). Standards for youth sennces in public libraries in New 
York State. New York: New York Library Association, Task Force on Standards for Youth 
Services, Youth Services Sec tion. 

Credentials, Competencies, and Certification 113 

Perritt, P. H., fc Heim, K. M. (1987, Winter). ALA-accredited master's degree: Considerations 
for youth services librarianship. Top of the News, 43. 

Turner, P. M. (1985). Helping teachers teach. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited. 

Vavrek, B. (1982, April). Profession needs a new entry level: Non-MLS workers in rural li- 
braries are isolated from the mainstream. American Libraries, 13, 271-272. 

Young Adult Services Division. Education Committee. (1982, September). Competencies for 
librarians serving youth. School Library Journal, 29, 51. 


1. The Fall 1984 issue of the Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 
reports the proceedings of a 1984 ALISE conference, which was devoted to the topic of 
accreditation. Whether ALA should accredit programs other than those leading to the M.L.S. 
degree was one of the many questions considered. The tremendous costs involved in accredita- 
tion no doubt deter ALA from broadening its current accreditation program. 

2. Alabama is one of the states which has had a bitter confrontation over this question. 
See The Alabama Librarian, November 1982, p. 4, and September 1983, p. 1 for details. 


Director, Professional Development Studies 

School of Communication, Information & Library Studies 

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 

Continuing Education: Providing 
for Change, Renewal, and Growth 

Why should this Allerton Institute on library services for children and 
young adults include a session on continuing education (CE)? Are there 
different issues and problems associated with CE for youth services librar- 
ians than for librarians in general? If so, what are they? The task today is to 
explore these questions, to identify the concerns about CE, and, if agree- 
ment is reached on some specific conclusions, to contribute to the "Youth 
Agenda" which will be formulated at the conclusion of the conference. 

From the perspective of one who administers a continuing education 
program which seeks to serve professionals in all types of libraries, media, 
and information centers, one answer to the questions just posed is no the 
basic issues and problems relating to continuing education are not very 
different, whether one is talking about school librarians or directors of 
public libraries or online searchers in industry. There are differences in 
degree, however, and therefore the answer to the question, should we be 
talking about CE for youth librarians specifically, is yes. In fact, a case can 
be made to support the contention that youth librarians are singularly 
disadvantaged in regard to continuing education. 

What are the problems which seem to be pervasive and to cut across 
types of positions and libraries? When looking at the complaints people 
have about continuing education, they really come from two categories of 
complainers. The first is a group that could be called the consumer 
individuals who have an interest in their own professional development 
but have difficulty finding learning opportunities that match their needs 
and expectations. They complain with justification that it is hard to 
discover what is being offered, that little of what can be identified is 
relevant to their particular need at that moment, that much of what is 
available is superficial or poorly done, that the cost in time and money is 
too high, and that the encouragement and rewards that ought to accrue to 
the CE participant are not forthcoming. 


1 16 Managers and Missionaries 

The second group of complainers comprises a motley assemblage of 
CE providers, library administrators, educators, and professional 
profession- watchers who again with considerable justification blame 
the would-be or should-be CE consumers for failing to make enough of an 
effort to seek out learning opportunities, to take responsibility for their 
own learning, to be discriminating in their selection of CE activities, to 
play the Typhoid Mary role as Regina Minudri calls it by sharing what 
has been learned with colleagues back home, and especially for failing to 
demonstrate on the job that CE can make a difference in performance and 
ultimately in the quality of service for the library user. 

Sometimes it seems that the profession is content with this standoff, 
with each camp feeling it has accomplished something by diagnosing the 
problem and pointing the finger at the other side. To be fair, during the 
last ten years there has been progress in recognizing the importance of 
providing for CE within the overall system of planning for the develop- 
ment of libraries and librarianship. Many states have included CE in 
statewide planning. The Continuing Library Education Network and 
Exchange (CLENE) has created much greater awareness of and has facili- 
tated communication and support for CE. It has worked to improve CE by 
developing criteria for quality and a voluntary provider approval system. 
ALA's Committee on Library Education (SCOLE) has recently established 
a CE subcommittee, which is cooperating with CLENE (now a round table 
of ALA) in an effort to have ALA approve the CLENE CE quality criteria 
as ALA guidelines. SCOLE is working to improve headquarters' support 
for an association-wide CE role. Such support could help AASL, ALSC, 
and YASD to serve better the CE needs of their members. 

In an article which will be published in the forthcoming Winter issue 
of Top of the News (Varlejs, 1987), it is argued that the ALA youth 
divisions should be doing much more in the area of continuing education, 
but that they cannot do what is needed without help from the association as 
a whole. In order to get help, they will have to form a coalition and fight for 

Very briefly, this is the argument. Despite the good job the divisions 
do with offering programming at conferences, the impact is not very great 
because few practioners attend, at least relative to their total numbers. 
Publications, cassettes, and now videotapes reach a wider audience and are 
enormously useful in helping librarians to keep up to date and to continue 
learning at their own pace at little cost and inconvenience. Praiseworthy as 
all these services are, however, they fall far short of what should be availa- 
ble considering the great number of things a youth services librarian needs 
to know and do. Moreover, the disparity in basic preparation is quite large, 
and therefore one has to keep in mind the needs of practitioners who have 
few, if any, courses in materials and library services for youth. This is not as 

Continuing Education 1 1 7 

serious a problem for school as for public librarians because of certifica- 
tion requirements but there is still enormous variation in the entry-level 
preparation. In New Jersey, for example, it is possible to be certified as an 
educational media specialist i.e., school librarian if one has a masters 
in educational media. Most of the people who hold this degree have never 
had a course in cataloging nor in children's literature. 

In addition to these remedial and survival CE needs, there is a third 
level which might be called the parachute category. Career ladders for 
youth librarians are limited, but there are some rungs which allow 
increased responsibility without having to leave the specialty positions 
such as system or regional coordinator or consultant (which require a new 
set of skills). 

Given these several categories and different levels, not to mention the 
considerable overlap with education and with child and adolescent devel- 
opment, listing all the knowledge, skill, and attitude areas that CE for 
youth services librarians ought to cover becomes a formidable task. If one 
did take a few weeks to develop the list and then matched it against what is 
actually being offered not just by ALA but throughout the country by 
local associations, state library agencies, library schools, and other 
providers one would end up with a very lopsided list. Judging from 
calendars of events published in some of the widely read journals, most CE 
identified as designed for youth services librarians is either book or micro- 
computer oriented. 

What is available, or at least that which is easily identified as available, 
simply is not enough. There is very little on planning or evaluating 
services, on child or adolescent development, on managing a school library 
or public library youth services department in a retrenchment era, on how 
children process information, or on the role of reading in an electronic age. 

In this last statement is the implication that knowledge of how chil- 
dren process information, for example, is indeed important for youth 
services librarians, and that it therefore constitutes a CE need. How can one 
say that? Has there been a valid and reliable study of a randomly selected 
sample of practitioners? No, but it is possible to perceive the increasing 
interest in children's information processing by browsing through the 
literature, talking with people, attending conferences, and keeping an eye 
on what is going on in the world at large to note new ideas and social 
phenomena which might have implications for librarians. These are legit- 
imate ways for a CE provider to do CE needs assessment. It is not scientific 
and rigorous, but it does keep one alert to the changing environment so 
that needs can be anticipated and new learning activities can be ready at the 
moment that a particular need is just beginning to crystallize. It is a way of 
trying to nudge the profession forward, to help it be proactive rather than 
merely reactive. 

118 Managers and Missionaries 

But this way of doing CE needs assessment by hunch should never 
stand alone it should supplement the basic and most essential kinds of 
needs assessment that each librarian must do for herself, using the best 
available checklists of competencies for the position she holds. The school 
library field has the Case and Lowrey Behavioral Requirements Analysis 
Checklist (Case, 1973); YASD has produced a list of competencies for YA 
librarians (American Library Association, 1982); and the New York 
Library Association has adapted the YASD list so that children's librarians 
can also use it (Young, 1985). In this regard, the youth services library field 
is ahead of most of the profession. 

However, as suggested at the outset, youth librarians can be seen as 
suffering certain disadvantages in continuing their education. As has 
already been concluded, what is offered does not match the range of needs. 
Not mentioned as yet are the problems caused by the relative isolation of 
youth services librarians, and the effect this has on their ability to take 
strong action to improve their access to appropriate CE. For the most part, 
the school librarian is the only librarian in his/her school, and often in 
his/her town. This is certainly also true of the children's librarian. As for 
the YA librarian, if there is one, she or he probably is the only one of the 
species for many miles around. In the typical situation, there are not 
enough people to form the sized group which makes the traditional work- 
shop or short course format viable. Self-assessment and self-directed learn- 
ing are almost the only routes available. 

On the other hand, because they have made good progress toward 
identifying the competencies required for their specialties, youth services 
librarians are in a good position to define the content of the CE "curricu- 
lum" which they need. In addition, because they know that their col- 
leagues throughout the country are often isolated from their peers and 
from professional support groups, underpaid and overworked, they can be 
quite confident in recommending that this curriculum needs to be very 
portable, flexible, and affordable. It will not do much good if it is offered 
once a year in Chicago or wherever ALA is meeting. This curriculum must 
be available on loan, in formats varied to suit the topic and different 
individual learning styles, paced for self-study but adaptable for small 
groups, geared to beginners as well as advanced learners. 

If one thinks about what it would take to develop this kind of "mail- 
order" CE, it has to be admitted that it would require a very large invest- 
ment in resources to develop and maintain. No single state library agency, 
library school, state professional association, or ALA division by itself is 
likely to have the staff and money required. If the profession really wants 
this kind of program, a way to pool resources has to be found. ALA is the 
only organization which is big enough to harbor such an effort. The youth 
services divisions of ALA have usually felt themselves to be underdogs 

Continuing Education 119 

within the ALA power structure. This need not be the case if they form a 
strong alliance and work toward specific objectives which will benefit the 
profession at large as well as youth services. Working for an agenda that 
calls for stronger support from the organization for the CE efforts of the 
divisions seems be an effective way to exercise some clout to good effect. 


The idea of mail-order CE has potential for alleviating the inadequate 
supply of CE for youth services librarians. It is felt, however, that interac- 
tion is essential, and that solitary self-directed learning cannot be the only 
mode. A great deal is gained from discussion with others in groups. Uses of 
new technology to bridge distance and permit interaction should be 

ALA should experiment with several learning packages to test the 
response. There should be programs for paraprofessionals as well as for 
professionals. A possible model might be the learning modules recently 
developed for staff training in the Area 2 Library Services Authority in 
Indiana. Another model is the CE course by Jane Robbins-Carter and 
Douglas Zweizig which ran in American Libraries from October 1985 
through February 1986. 

In addition to the facilitating of programs and packages, ALA should 
ensure better communication and an enlarged clearinghouse function for 
CE. There should be more exchange of information about existing pro- 
grams and resources which could be shared if people knew about them. 


American Library Association. Young Adult Services Division. Education Committee. (1982, 
September). Young adults deserve the best: Competencies for librarians serving youth. 
School Library Journal, 29, 51. 

Case, R. N., fc Lowrey, A. M. (1973). Behavioral requirements analysis checklist: A compila- 
tion of competency-based job functions and task statements for school library media 
personnel. Chicago: American Library Association. 

Varlejs, J. (1987, Winter). Continuing education for youth services librarians: A diagnosis 
and prescription. Top of the News, 43, 193-202. 

Young, D. (1985, Spring). Standards for the library, for the librarian. Public Libraries, 24, 


University of Pittsburgh 

School of Library and Information Science 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Halos and Pitchforks: Questions about 
Librarians Serving Youth 

All occupations are worthy of study, a fact documented by many since 
Robert Park's classic research on the hobo, the taxi-dance-hall girl, and the 
professional thief. Librarianship, too, has been subjected to in-depth 
analysis on everything from the personality of the librarian to questions 
about the attributes of the profession. The subspecialty of work with 
young people has recently been subjected to much scrutiny, primarily 
because there is such a need for specialists in schools and public libraries at 
the entry level. 

Some claim that this shortage is due to a failure of professional 
education. Others point to low pay and lower status accorded to those who 
work with children. Both factors are undoubtedly significant, but some 
others, such as job satisfaction, should be considered. Whether sorting clay 
tablets or entering items onto OCLC, it has always been the librarian's 
belief that the job being done was important. Preserving the culture, 
offering the great works of literature to the masses, or organizing the 
contributions of Fred Rogers have been tasks in which one could take some 
pride. But now there would appear to be some confusion about those tasks 
and just how meaningful they are, especially as they relate to young 

Another consideration may be related to the changing role of women 
in society at large. Because organizational patterns in schools and public 
libraries are shifting, fewer managerial positions are provided within the 
subspecialty. This is occurring at a time when women are selecting more 
diversified occupational choices within and outside of librarianship. 

These and other questions need study as we consider directions that 
information service to young people might take. It is the purpose of this 
discussion to explore some of the issues which affect the provision of such 
service. Are there factors within the profession which are drawing entry 


122 Managers and Missionaries 

level individuals to other service areas? Is it a crisis at the entry level only or 
are other aspects of the service also in trouble? What are the social issues 
beyond those of professional concern affecting this subspecialty? 

Other Professional Subspecialties 

Career patterns of women in a variety of occupational groups provide 
interesting but inconclusive evidence about their provision of service to 
young people. It is predicted that by 1990 at least "75 percent of children 
will have both parents working outside the home" (Brazelton, 1985, p. 
xviii). Now the working woman has a choice of occupations far broader 
than the traditional "feminized professions." Other occupational oppor- 
tunities may have drawn away potential candidates from a predominately 
female subspecialty like service to children. 

In law, for instance, family law practice draws many women. Of the 
Family Law Section of the American Bar Association, 26 percent are 
female, a fact consistent with the "widely held opinion that female lawyers 
tend to concentrate in those fields of law dealing with the problems of 
individuals" (Smith, 1983, p. 241 ). Furthermore, women are more likely to 
hold positions outside the private practice of law and, therefore, are less 
likely to be associated with law firms of any size. 

In medicine, pediatrics has long been the favored specialty of women 
medical graduates. In a recent study of specialty preferences at five medical 
schools, males had higher preferences for high risk procedures and patients 
at risk while women students scored higher in a preference for handling 
preventive care and patient responsibility and participation. Of the six 
major medical subspecialties, the top three choices for women were: 
(1) ob/gyn, (2) pediatrics, and (3) internal medicine. For men the choices 
were: ( 1 ) internal medicine, (2) family practice, and (3) surgery (Cuca, 1979, 
p. 429). Implications of these and several other studies suggest that the re- 
cent influx of women has not substantially altered career patterns of 

Women in medicine with home and family responsibilities are more 
likely to choose subspecialties which relate to their identification as nur- 
turer as well as healer. These subspecialties often have distinctions in such 
areas as hours of service and salary that are markedly different. Pediatri- 
cians, for instance, in 1984 earned less than half of what anesthesiologists 
did. In the years between 1974 and 1984, salaries of psychiatrists doubled 
while pediatricians showed only about a 5 percent increase in income. The 
only subspecialty with more patient contact hours per week is family/ gen- 
eral practice (Reynolds & Duann, 1985, pp. 60, 70, 123). These differences, 
however, are true for both male and female pediatricians and may reflect 
more about the status of the client than the gender of the pediatrician. 

Questions About Librarians Serving Youth 123 

In the ministry, the role of women is even more controversial. In an 
article in the Journal of Public and International Affairs, the Rev. Beryl 
Choi (1983) states unequivocally: 

Although female members far outnumber males in the Christian Church, though 
for thousands of years women have been the nurturing foundation of their 
people the very essence of community they have been, in that community of 
religious faith, a disenfranchised group. The barriers to power and prestige for 
women in the Church, though not absolute, are certainly ubiquitous and ancient. 
(P- 33) 

Women in many of the Christian churches have been relegated to the 
role of educator with little voice in policy and certainly no voice in 
theology. The role of religious educator is a significant one, but in terms of 
growth and change, a lack of involvement in policy and theology may 
restrict development. In the first decade of the twentieth century, 8 million 
immigrants landed at Ellis Island, many of them Roman Catholics. The 
education provided for many of these new arrivals was developed by a cadre 
of religious who were "the sacrificial and hidden asset of the whole system" 
(Hesburg, 1986, p. 161 ). The only words more frequently heard than "Look 
it up in the card catalog" were "but Sister said." Yet today, vocations in the 
religious orders are down and many regard church schools as merely a 
relatively inexpensive private school rather than a religious educational 

What do these questions about the role of women in the traditional 
professions have to do with information services for young people? Per- 
haps the most significant factor is that librarianship is not alone in 
wondering where to find new recruits for new services. Many other occupa- 
tional groups have difficulty identifying entry level professionals for pub- 
lic service jobs dealing with youth. With the choice of careers more 
diversified for women, there are questions about the value placed on those 
occupations dealing with children and young people. Even larger ques- 
tions relate to the value placed on the children themselves, who serves 
them, and who sets the policies that regulate the services. 

The second major factor in the development of a cadre of trained 
professionals working with young people deals with the nature and philo- 
sophy of those agencies providing the service. It is here that school and 
public library people should be drawing together. Both institutions oper- 
ate in the public, not-for-profit sector vying with other agencies battling 
for limited money to provide essential services. Instead, cooperative efforts 
often go astray. Networks exclude one or the other; territorial squabbles 
occupy time that would be better spent on work with young people. The 
current fuss about what age group is served by which division in the 
American Library Association is an example of such behavior. 

The shifts in organizational structure in both schools and public 

124 Managers and Missionaries 

libraries also affect youth services specialists. The generalist approach 
provided some children's and young adult librarians with opportunities to 
advance as "program specialists" or "information managers." The 
approach, however, often failed to provide the entry-level positions which 
led to the cadre of specialists able and willing to transfer their skills from 
dealing with children to dealing with board members or city managers. In 
schools, many middle managers have also been eliminated. This not only 
affects programs, creating a situation where there is no direction or plan- 
ning, but it also means that, to advance, there is no place to go but out of 
the service. 

Librarians Serving Youth 

Several studies recently have been conducted examining aspects of 
education and the new professional. Both Fasick (1986, p. 613) and 
Immroth (1987, p. 210) have considered the entry level professional and 
found that, in general, most people in library school have some kind of 
library work experience. While this makes classroom participation lively 
("We do it this way in my library"), it may also mean that we are not 
recruiting widely enough. A typical career pattern follows an individual 
from page to clerk to library school. Incoming M.L.S. students at the Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh report an average of three years of library work expe- 
rience before graduate school. 

There is another problem in "growing" replacements. The library 
profession has approximately 12 percent minority professionals in public 
libraries (Guy, 1986, p. 5). As population shifts occur and minorities 
become in fact majorities, there are fewer and fewer professionals to serve as 
role models. Although a study of population growth indicates a strong 
increase in the number of black and Hispanic children, there is no indica- 
tion of a similar growth in numbers of black and Hispanic librarians. 

On the other hand, there is strong evidence that many people who 
work with children do not have any professional education. In a survey of 
children's librarians just released by the Library Research Center at the 
University of Illinois, 88 percent of the sample had some college education, 
but only 50 percent had any library education. Less than half of the 50 
percent had completed the M.L.S. (Roy, 1986, p. 47). These figures are 
substantiated by preliminary results of a study of Pennsylvania librarians 
serving children which indicates that outside of metropolitan systems, it is 
likely that a volunteer or clerk will be providing service to children. 

More than half of the public libraries in the United States serve 
populations under 10,000. These small rural libraries usually have some 
kind of service for children and young people but with little quality 
control. Collections are poorly maintained and "craft programs" abound. 

Questions About Librarians Serving Youth 125 

The profession must wrestle with the question of whether to write off such 
efforts and worry only about "professional service" or take the responsibil- 
ity for including those who will never get a graduate degree. Continuing 
education programs that offer only the practice and not one whit of 
philosophy of service perpetuate the system. 

Libraries without youth specialists who have the first professional 
degree are not confined to rural areas, however. In tight times, administra- 
tors often felt they were unable to afford expensive professionals to work 
with children and young people. College graduates (or even those with less 
education) were hired to fill vacancies and cut down on personnel costs. 
Some major city systems have begun to build back their professional staff, 
but the process is a long one. Advertisements for children's librarians are 
widely circulated, but the role models aren't there. Neither are the new 
children's librarians. 

Many have voiced concern over the failure of library schools to provide 
faculty and courses in services to children. It is true that some schools have 
dropped such specializations. But higher education, especially profes- 
sional education, is market driven. When the demand for courses is pre- 
sent, the courses are offered. Information is big business and provides a 
seemingly endless job market for today's pragmatic student. The demand 
for courses and even a shift in the curriculum from one dominated by 
public libraries and public schools to one reflecting largely private sector 
employment is the result of many factors, not the least of which is student 

It is unrealistic to assume that higher education administrators are 
any more altruistic or high minded than their counterparts in the corpo- 
rate world. Providing the professionals to work with children and young 
people in schools and public libraries is costly and time consuming, carries 
little status, and provides few millionaire alumni. Furthermore, it is hard 
to find qualified faculty to teach, research, and serve the community. There 
are relatively few children's specialists in doctorate programs around the 
country. The time is past when one's reputation alone will provide a 
tenured slot in a school of library and information science. Those individ- 
uals who are already a part of faculties need all our help and support. They 
need to be invited to give formal papers at conferences. They need the 
cooperation of libraries to act as field sites for their research. They need 
recognition by their peers in the field because it is lonely in that ivory tower 
where the only thing that colleagues agree on is a concern over parking. 


Being a youth services specialist, however, still has its rewards. The 
children are responsive, even starved for stories. We have more media and 

126 Managers and Missionaries 

materials available. Technology can enhance the richness of color in 
picture books and provide your favorite encyclopedia on a video disc. The 
job is challenging and exciting and not very well paid. 

Job satisfaction is, of course, tied to more than salary. There is a need 
for growth in responsibility and scope. For some youth service librarians 
there is a perceived lack of opportunity, however. Librarians report that 
they not only view the job as "dead-end" but feel unqualified for further 
responsibility. This perception is contradicted by reports which indicate 
that managerial skills are transferable and that controlling preschoolers at 
a story hour is related to working with a board of trustees, at least to some 
degree. Furthermore, many middle and upper level administrators in 
public library systems began as youth services specialists. State librarians, 
library directors, even university professors and deans began their careers 
by lighting candles at story hours and designing summer reading certifi- 
cates and talking to local PTAs. 

These problems at the entry level present a challenge to those engaged 
in this business of putting children and ideas and learning and reading 
together. There are societal concerns that deal with the status of our group 
as a female intensive occupation. Internally, the profession is in the midst 
of a profound realignment. Many are struggling to protect the right of 
citizens to information access in a society that sees information as a 
commodity. Children and their needs are often marginalized or so rigidly 
proscribed that professional growth is stifled. Yet we are intrigued by the 
potential of our work. Our job satisfaction comes from knowing that the 
job we do does make a difference. The communication of that satisfaction 
should be wider than the staff room discussion of what went on at story 
hour. We need to mount an active, vigorous recruitment effort, directed 
especially at minorities. 

We need to look carefully at the continuing education activities pro- 
vided by professional associations as well as colleges and universities. 
Meeting the creators of words and pictures is entertaining, sometimes 
enlightening, but should not be the extent of our efforts. We must provide 
opportunities to debate the direction of the service we provide, to consider 
the philosophy behind what we do. 

Finally, it is significant to note that in the Illinois study, 97 percent of 
the respondents declared that if they had to start over, they would choose 
the same job again (Roy, 1986, p. 63). Professional problems abound, but 
interest and commitment is evident. Librarians who work with young 
people should be awarded halos not pitchforks. 

Questions About Librarians Serving Youth 127 


American Library Association. Office of Library Personnel Resources. (1986). Academic and 
public librarians: Data by race, ethnicity and sex. Chicago: ALA. 

Brazelton, T. B. (1985). Working and caring. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 

Choi, B. T. (1982, Fall/Winter). Power and religion: The institutional church. Journal of 
Public and International Affairs, 3, 33. 

Cuca, J. M. (1979, November). The specialization and career preferences of women and men 
recently graduated from U.S. medical schools. Journal of the American Medical Women's 
Association, 34, 429. 

Fasick, A. (1986, Spring). Library and information science students. Library Trends, 34(4), 

Hesburg, T. M. (1986, October 4). Catholic education in America. America, 755, 161. 

Immroth, B. (1987, Winter). Repopulating an endangered species: The issues and literature of 
recruitment. Top of the News, 43(2), 206-216. 

Reynolds, R., & Duann, D. J. (Eds.). (1985). Socioeconomic characteristics of medical prac- 
tice, 1985. Chicago: American Medical Association. 

Roy, L. (1986, October). A survey of children's librarians in Illinois public libraries. Illinois 
Library and Information Statistical Report No. 21. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University 
of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science. 

Smith, K.; Troha, M.; et al. (1983, Fall). A survey of the membership of the ABA section of 
family law. Family Law Quarterly, 17, 24. 


School of Library Science 
University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

What Library Schools Offer that School 

Library Media Specialists and Youth 

Services Librarians Need 

When asked to speak at this conference on the topic, "What Library 
Schools Offer that School Library Media Specialists and Youth Services 
Librarians Need," it was decided that personal experience needed to be 
supplemented with curriculum revision at Michigan and with the rather 
sketchy knowledge of what some colleagues at other universities are doing 
in library education for youth services with current information from other 
programs. Many library school catalogs, including Michigan's, did not 
reflect the most recent developments, and the professional literature 
seemed to focus more on what is not being done rather than what is being 

An urgent plea along with a brief questionnaire, "Educational Pro- 
grams for Librarians Who Work With Youth," was sent in September 1986 
to a representative of each U.S. institutional member of the Association of 
Library and Information Science Educators (ALISE). Both regular and 
associate members were included in the survey. In most cases the represen- 
tatives were persons designated as having graduate specializations in 
library service for children and young adults and/ or school library media 
programs, as reported in the Journal of Education for Library and Infor- 
mation Science directory issue, 1985-86. In spite of the short time frame and 
busy schedules, fifty-two of the seventy institutions contacted (74 percent) 
sent responses. Findings are presented in Table 1. 

Table 1 shows that forty-nine of the fifty-two institutions responding 
(94 percent) have curriculum plans or concentrations for those preparing 
at the graduate level to be school library media specialists. Forty-one (79 
percent) reported having curriculum plans or concentrations for youth 
services in public libraries. One might wonder whether failure to respond 
meant that those institutions do not have programs in either of these areas. 


130 Managers and Missionaries 



Have Do Not Have 

Number Percentage Number Percentage 

School Library Media Curriculum Plan 49 94 3 6 

Public Library Youth Services Curric. Plan 41 79 11 21 

N = 52 Institutions 

That should not be assumed, however. Several are known to have speciali- 
zations in school library media and/ or in public library services for youth 
and have faculty who have expertise in these fields. 

Fifty institutions answered questions on number of faculty, full and 
part time, who teach courses related to library services for youth in school 
or public libraries. The number of full-time faculty reported ranges from 
zero to seven, and for part-time faculty, from zero to twenty. No institution 
reported zero for both full- and part-time faculty. Whether or not they have 
concentrations in youth services, all institutions represented in the survey 
have one or more faculty members with expertise in this field. Although 
two of the respondents stated philosophical commitments to adjunct 
faculty who are library practitioners, many others seemed to prefer a 
balance between full-time faculty who'have the responsibility to develop 
curriculum, conduct research, and counsel students as well as to teach, and 
the practitioner or doctoral student with recent experience in the field. 

Forty-four institutions responded to the question: Approximately 
what percent of those who graduated from your program within the past 
two years have been employed in public library youth services or in school 
library media programs? The range was 5 percent to 100 percent with a 
mean percentage of 40.7. The median was 30 percent and responses were 
tri-modal (10, 30, and 33 percent). However, if the eight institutions which 
are virtually single purpose (those reporting that 90 percent or more of 
their graduates have been placed in school or public library youth services 
positions) were excluded, the mean for the remaining thirty-six would be 
28.4 percent and the median would be 26.5 percent. For a majority of 
library schools responding, more than one-fourth of their graduates have 
been placed in school or public library youth services positions within the 
past two years. 

Program requirements, in addition to the courses required for all 
graduates, differ from one institution to another, but there are consistent 
strands to be found. For school library media concentrations, administra- 
tion of media programs; literature or materials for children and young 
adults (sometimes with several courses specified in this area); the teaching 

What Library Schools Offer 131 

or curriculum role of the library media specialist; design, production, and 
use of audiovisual media; computer literacy; and a practicum were often 

For a concentration in public library youth services, the number of 
required courses is usually less although library programs and services for 
children and young adults, literature or materials for children and young 
adults (several courses may be specified in this area), and a practicum are 
often listed. Design, production, and use of audiovisual media and micro- 
computers in libraries were frequent additions. 

Some other required courses for students preparing to be youth ser- 
vices librarians in school or public library settings were listed by one or 
more institutions: planning information systems for children and young 
adults, oral programming for libraries, public library interagency cooper- 
ation, psychology of childhood and adolescence, multicultural librarian- 
ship, information transfer and children, communication and learning 
theory, inner city seminar, and teaching of reading. Most of the electives 
listed were variations of children's literature e.g., information books for 
children, fantasy books for children, folklore and storytelling, multicul- 
tural literature for youth, contemporary literature for children, criticism of 
children's literature, history and development of literature for children, 
media for minorities, topics in literature for children and young adults 
(with variation from term to term), puppetry, and bibliotherapy. Another 
elective of interest was computer coordination for media centers. 

One respondent cautioned against too much emphasis on special 
courses for youth services librarians. Many of the courses in a library school 
curriculum look at the information needs of youth as part of a larger 
perspective, she noted. She suggested that a content analysis of all courses 
offered would be a better way of determining what library schools are 
offering that youth services librarians need. It is indeed a point well taken 
although the task is beyond the scope of this survey. 

A recent curriculum revision at The University of Michigan was 
developed by determining the essential content (competencies, skills, 
knowledge) for all graduate students in the program and then the addi- 
tional content needed by those in each of the special curriculum plans 
offered. This planning process resulted in a number of new courses and a 
restructuring of most remaining ones. The faculty, working together over 
time on this revision, reaffirmed that, to a considerable extent, information 
professionals of all kinds have need for common learnings. 

We found that several of the special emphases which had made school 
library media programs different varied media, the understanding of 
technology necessary for their use, and even the instructional role of the 
librarian have been mainstreamed by the profession. For example, a new 
course at Michigan, "Design of Information Products," adapted from a 

132 Managers and Missionaries 

course in instructional development which has been taken almost exclu- 
sively by students in the school library media concentration, was praised 
recently as highly desirable for students preparing for their own specializa- 
tions by academic and public library members of Michigan Dean Robert 
Warner's advisory committee as well as by representatives from the infor- 
mation industry with whom the school has consulted. In addition, a 
program component on "communication," long required of school 
library media specialists, is now required for all students. 

Table 2 reports the increase, decrease, and no change in number of 
courses and faculty, full and part-time, within the past two years, accord- 
ing to those responding to the survey described earlier. Ten institutions (19 
percent) have increased the number of courses related to children's and 
young adult materials and service which they offer. Only one institution 
has decreased course offerings in this area. Most institutions (thirty-four 
or 65 percent) report no change, and seven (14 percent) did not respond 
to this question. 

Loss in numbers of full-time faculty within the past two years is 
reported by five institutions (10 percent). That is higher than the decrease 
in courses reported and should signal concern. Also, a slightly lower 
number of institutions reported an increase in full-time faculty within the 
past two years than the reported increase in courses offered (eight or 15 
percent). A large majority of institutions (71 percent or thirty-seven) 
reported no change within this time period. For part-time faculty, 
increases were greater (sixteen or 31 percent) within the past two years. 
Only one institution reported decreased part-time faculty, and twenty-six 
(50 percent) reported no change. 

In reporting plans for program emphasis within the next five years, 
twenty-two respondents (42 percent) said their institutions plan to 
increase, two (4 percent) said they expect to decrease emphasis, and twenty- 
six (50 percent) said they do not expect any change in emphasis. Only two 
institutions (4 percent) did not respond to this question. 



Increase Decrease No Change No Response 
Per- Per- Per- Per- 

Per- Per- Per- Per- 

No. centage No. centage No. centage No. centage 

Number of Courses (past 2 yrs) 









Number of F/T Faculty (past 2 yrs) 









Number of P/T Faculty (past 2 yrs) 









Plans for Emphasis (next 5 yrs) 









N = 52 Institutions 

What Library Schools Offer 133 

It should be noted that a much larger survey, "School Library Media 
Employment Questionnaire," was distributed to institutions with pro- 
grams preparing school library media specialists by the American Associa- 
tion for School Librarian's Library Media Educators Section. Results from 
this survey should be of considerable interest to the field. That question- 
naire did not seek information about public library youth services place- 
ment and projected need, however. 

Of the fifty-two institutions represented in the present survey, forty (77 
percent) reported that they had offered one or more continuing education 
(CE) programs intended for school and/ or public library youth services 
librarians during the past two years. The range for all institutions was zero 
to seventeen within this time period. Table 3 shows the number of institu- 
tions which offered any of the following types of CE programs: (1) those 
given for academic credit and therefore applicable for a graduate degree, 
(2) those given for continuing education units (CEUs) as approved by the 
institution or by a state agency established to coordinate continuing educa- 
tion, and (3) those given as noncredit workshops, conferences, or seminars. 
Three library schools offered six or more continuing education courses for 
academic credit, another five institutions offered three to five CE programs 
for academic credit, and seventeen offered one or two such programs dur- 
ing the past two years. Twenty-five institutions, slightly less than half of 
the total response group of fifty-two, reported offering continuing educa- 
tion programs for academic credit to youth services librarians. 

Programs offering CEU credits were not given quite as often for this 
audience. Two institutions gave six or more programs, six gave three to 
five programs, and fourteen gave one or two programs. The total number 
of institutions offering programs directed to youth services librarians for 
CEUs was twenty-two. 

Noncredit programs for this audience were given by still fewer institu- 
tions; none gave six or more programs without credit, six gave three to five 
programs, and twelve gave one or two during the past two years. Although 




Type of Program Number of Programs 

6 or more 3-5 1-2 No Response 

Academic Credit 

















Number of Institutions offering 1 or more CE Programs in the past two years = 40 (77 percent) 
Range of CE Programs offered = 0-17 

134 Managers and Missionaries 

the total number of institutions giving this type of continuing education 
program is smaller than the number giving either of the credit type 
programs (eighteen), the noncredit activities described by respondents 
seem to attract larger numbers of participants, often 200 or more for a 
single event. Thus they do provide a useful function in the professional 
development of youth services librarians. This may be especially impor- 
tant in geographic areas where other agencies professional associations, 
regional service units, or interagency consortia are not providing such a 
function. But even if other groups are available, there is value for the 
library school and for the practitioner to interact on matters of updating 
professional knowledge. 

An impressive and extensive list of CE topics for credit and noncredit 
was offered by those responding to the questionnaire. They included many 
facets of materials and services of interest to youth services librarians. 
Several library schools offer updates on different topics for this audience 
each year. Some are day long activities, others are one week mini-courses, 
and still others are offered via television or on a series of Saturdays. It seems 
safe to say that most library schools would respond positively to almost any 
suggestion for continuing education activities they received from youth 
services practitioners. 

Responses were mixed to the question: Within the past two years, to 
what extent have practitioners who work with youth participated in your 
continuing education activities which were not designed especially for this 
group (e.g., searching automated databases, financial management for 
librarians, using microcomputers in libraries)? Some respondents said 
they had no statistics to reflect the degree of participation of any type of 
professional in their continuing education activities, and others indicated 
little participation in these general interest topics. One respondent inter- 
preted the question as meaning a lack of importance in these topics for 
school or public librarians who work with children or young adults. This 
was certainly not intended. A fair number of library schools reported 
experiences similar to those at Michigan in which a growing number of 
youth services librarians are seeking the same kind of professional develop- 
ment as are their colleagues in adult services in academic, special, and 
public libraries. Particularly in the areas noted earlier online searching, 
management skills, and microcomputer applications information pro- 
fessionals of many specialties seem to be feeling the need for more expe- 
rience and acting on that need to gain or renew skills. 


In summarizing the findings of this survey and drawing conclusions 
from it, I am modestly optimistic about what library schools are offering 

What Library Schools Offer 135 

youth services practitioners and those who wish careers in this arena. A 
large majority of library schools are offering graduate programs with 
curriculum plans in one or both of the youth services library settings, 
school or public. All but two of the institutions from which responses were 
received report that they have one or more faculty members in this area; for 
forty-nine (94 percent) of the total responding group of fifty-two, at least 
one of these faculty members has full-time status. This means that some- 
one is there to listen to the needs of youth services librarians and to speak to 
those needs in curriculum planning activities of the institution. 

The percent of graduates who have taken youth services positions in 
the past two years varies from one institution to another; for the majority in 
this survey, one-fourth or more of the total number of graduates took such 
a position. But many institutions, as is true with the library school at 
Michigan, would welcome the opportunity to increase the number. 
Twenty-two library schools reported that they plan greater emphasis for 
this specialization within the next five years. Several are actively recruiting 
students now to meet the need for youth services professionals in both 
school and public libraries. These and other library schools may find 
valuable support for such an action from this Allerton Conference and 
from the AASL survey mentioned earlier. Few institutions reported 
decreases in number of courses within the past two years. 

The most negative indicator is that five institutions (10 percent) have 
decreased the number of full-time faculty who have teaching responsibility 
and expertise in materials and library services for youth. It is hoped and 
believed that this figure will be reversed in the next two to five years. 

Continuing education to meet the needs of youth services practitio- 
ners appears to be healthy; many types of programs are offered and most 
library schools participate in some CE activities for this audience. Not all 
relevant CE is, or should be, directed exclusively to this audience. If youth 
services librarians are a part of the mainstream of the information profes- 
sion, as they must be, then all instructors must understand and courses 
throughout the curriculum must address the needs of this group within the 
context of the total professional education as well as through separate 
segments of that educational program. 


Director of Libraries 

Memphis/Shelby County Public Library and Information Center 
Memphis, Tennessee 

What Do Public Libraries Need From 

Managers and Missionaries 

for Children's Services? 

As a former children's services librarian and a library administrator in 
several public libraries, I've spoken on this topic numerous times over the 
last twelve years. In general, the audience expects to hear words of wisdom 
about how children's librarians need to know the literature in the field and 
the wide range of needs of their varied audiences, how to budget, how to 
select materials and do programming, and how to get the administrator's 
attention. Certainly an M.L.S., a little experience in the field, and some 
continuing education will provide an awareness of these needs. Therefore, 
it is obvious that libraries and children's services librarians can address 
needs other than those that are specific to children's librarianship. 

Over the years many librarians have realized that those in children's 
services need to know more than just the literature of the field. For 
instance, only after I ceased being a children's librarian did I have a 
conversation with a friend who explained the development of motor skills 
in young children. With chagrin, I realized that almost all the finger plays 
selected for use in programming had been inappropriate and probably very 

Children's services librarians need to know about child development 
(both mental and physical) as well as how children learn to read. Although 
not all practitioners agree with the methods used in schools, we need to 
know the current methods being used in our schools and, more impor- 
tantly, we need to be aware of curriculum changes. Just as we need to know 
about child development, we need to know how children build vocabulary 
skills, word recognition, sentence patterns, and comprehension. 

Most children's services librarians, even in very large systems, do their 
own public relations so they need to know what sells their programs and 
how to put it into a format that will "talk" to children or those who pay 


138 Managers and Missionaries 

attention to library services for children. Program planning is a necessity 
for all children's librarians and one that takes great skill. Children's 
services librarians would do well to spend time learning how to put 
together a good program as well as concentrating on the content. 

But, I'd like to move on to a larger issue. After the basics are there, 
what do libraries need from children's librarians? I would suggest the 
following: advocacy, political savvy, initiative, commitment, pride, 
and professionalism. 

Although Frances Clark Sayers (1965) is most often quoted for her 
insightful comments on the philosophy of librarianship to children, I 
particularly like her quote from Summoned by Books when she says: "If 
she (the children's librarian) is left outside the realm of the intellectual and 
administrative concern of the library staff with which she works, she had 
better look to her own attitudes" (p. 44). 

As a library administrator, I market and sell library services everyday. I 
also react to "being sold" a service or library product that I am convinced 
will benefit both the public and position the library in a prominent and 
respected place in the community. Without well planned, specific advo- 
cacy on the part of children's librarians, the library administration will 
respond to its own agenda or to those on the staff who are pushing certain 
services. Children's services librarians have consistently suffered from the 
syndrome of waiting for the recognition they know they deserve and it's 
obvious that that isn't working. 

Closely aligned with advocacy is political savvy. In other words, what 
is going on in your community that is such an obvious match with service 
to children that you could use it to make children's services a higher 
priority in your library? Learn to translate local community efforts, inter- 
ests, and plans into needs for library service. Watch for issues that surface in 
every community emphasis on job training, education, community edu- 
cation centers, preschoolers, reading readiness and make certain that the 
library is involved. Make a plan, call whoever is in charge, tell them what 
you can do for them. Learn to think of the library as a place that can offer 
infinite possibilities for services and translate those possibilities for others 
in the community who don't think of the library that way. 

Libraries are always looking for employees with initiative, but it is 
believed that children's librarians need initiative more than others. You are 
often the only professional who exclusively serves children in your library 
(a lonely spot) so it takes more and harder efforts to do the work that needs 
to be done and be the standard bearer for children's services. Make certain 
that initiative is recognized by volunteering to give reports to friends 
groups and the library board about what is happening in children's 
services and why. Parlay your ability and initiative into becoming recog- 
nized as a valuable and respected voice for children's services. 

What Do Public Libraries Need 139 

Commitment and pride are two needs that go closely together. I have 
made it a point to always tell others about my beginnings in the profession, 
and I have advocated and supported children's service as an administrator. 
Too often, however, I have watched children's services librarians negate 
their own image by both downgrading what they do and permitting others 
to do it. Students often ask me where I learned to be a library director and I 
always tell them I learned two excellent skills as a children's librarian 
how to tell a story and how to manage a crowd of three-year olds! Chil- 
dren's services librarians need to decide that they are going to commit 
themselves to being a good one and make certain others know how good 
they are. 

Libraries need librarians who look, act, and perform in a professional 
manner. We can learn much from professionals in other fields when we 
recognize that they are consciously portraying an image to the public that 
they want the public to believe. Be very aware that you are always repre- 
senting the library profession and the institution for which you work if 
you don't like the image, you are in control of changing it. 

Finally, I know what to look for in children's services librarians. I 
want to know that you decided to become one, that you know what you're 
doing, but, more importantly, why you're doing it, that you have the 
ability to articulate that why to varied audiences (including me), that you 
can see the possibilities of library service to children in everything that 
happens around you, and be able to determine how and why some of them 
fit into library service. I look for the philosopher, the dreamer, the innova- 
tor who is part pragmatic realist. Coupled with practical library skills, this 
is what public libraries are searching for in their children's services 


Sayers, F. C. (1965). Summoned by books, essays and speeches by Frances Clarke Sayers. 
New York: Viking. 


Supervisor of Media Services 

Richmond Public Schools 

Richmond, Virginia 

What Do Schools Need? 

After eighteen years of professional commitment to library media services 
for youth, I found myself perplexed by the question, What do schools need? 
Perplexed because my personal perceptions were so clear or so I thought. 
Yet, I could not focus and translate them to the written word. It became 
necessary to sit and recall years of professional behaviors and experiences 
in the school and public library. It also became necessary to summon 
relationships and accomplishments, gained or lost, due to those behaviors. 

What I saw showed growth and tremendous change, but not nearly 
enough. It was frightening because I found that the majority of our 
problems were due to us; we did not know who we were or what we should 
be doing. I turned to research and fellow professionals for help. I had to 
know what was being done in the school library media centers of this 
country. There was too much fragmentation in my mind and in the 
evidence to determine what was needed now and tomorrow. What I dis- 
cerned schools to need from librarianship and what I see them needing in 
the future was tied to how we perceived ourselves as being and what role we 
are willing to play. 

Visualize this scenario. The school doors open at least thirty minutes 
before the morning bell. The children begin to enter slowly, sleepily, but 
with a destination in mind. The library media center is warm, cozy, and 
there is a person there frantically trying to get ready for the day. Some 
books that really need to be processed came in late yesterday. A teacher is 
waiting for them. There are still four unusable media kits from last week, 
returned with parts missing. An order needs to go out for replacement of 
the parts. A class is coming in at first period and the schedule shows that 
classes will continue until fifth period. Lunchtime work is out of the 
question cafeteria duty. There is a faculty meeting this afternoon so no 
after school catch-up. The curriculum team is meeting, and the busy 
library media specialist really wants to prepare some bibliographies for the 
units to be studied next, even though not invited to do so. Two projectors 


142 Managers and Missionaries 

need to be moved from their security location to classrooms for first period, 
and they need to be checked before going out. 

The faces appear in the door and see the distressed expression of the 
library media specialist. Some just want to view magazines, some have 
reports due, and some are looking for a book that a friend returned. If you 
were one of the students, would you ask the library media specialist for 
anything? If you were the library media specialist, would you want the 
students to ask? 

James Liesner (1984) in "Learning at Risk: School Library Media 
Programs in an Information World" states a premise school library media 
specialists should contemplate: 

Considerable confusion exists regarding the roles library media specialists door 
do not perform and the roles they are capable of performing. Roles cannot be 
performed and services cannot be used effectively if they are not perceived accu- 
rately by potential clients or if there is a lack of acceptance of these roles by either 
the individuals receiving the benefits of them, or the individuals attempting to 
perform them. Role conflicts of this sort almost inevitably lead to job dissatisfac- 
tion and ineffective performance, (p. 76) 

"Capable of performing" is one significant phrase of this excerpt. Most 
school library media specialists have educational backgrounds. They have 
been trained as teachers and, therefore, curriculum theory and instruc- 
tional design are part of the expertise brought to the field of library media. 
Skills instruction which by default, lack of acceptance, or ignorance is 
often taught in isolation. Library media specialists are not, as a whole, 
invited or even considered to be a part of the school curriculum team. 

This brings up another issue in Liesner's excerpt which is "roles 
cannot be performed accurately by potential clients or if there is a lack of 
acceptance of these roles by either the individuals receiving the benefits of 
them or the individuals attempting to perform them." Although the 
library media center has been called the "hub" of the school, the actuality 
of this occurring is not universal. 

The role designation of the specialists is not seen as a support posi- 
tion. Olson (1984) in "Unassailable Truth? A Look at the Concept of 
School Library Media Specialists as Teachers," cites "the problem is that 
we have been too literal in our interpretation and demonstration attempts 
at curriculum support.... such support should be far more direct. In 
fact. ..the library is a part of the curriculum" (p. 55). He submits that we 
must stop thinking about the library as a resource, a service, and start 
thinking about it as a subject, a course requiring direct instruction to 
achieve its objectives" (p. 56). 

The need is evident for library media specialists to accept themselves 
and to determine their "place" in the scheme of educating children. Inher- 
ent in this acceptance is the need to educate teachers and administrators, 

What Do Schools Need 143 

not just of the importance of the school media program, but, more signifi- 
cantly, the role the library media specialist plays in the accomplishment of 
the total program. Only with this sense of being needed and expected to 
perform can both the school and the library media specialist attain the 
desired results. 

In order for job satisfaction to be a basic part of the work life of the 
library media specialist, evidence of self-confident professionalism is 
necessary, even if forced. This self-confident professionalism is shown 
when library media specialists come out of the center office performing 
clerical tasks only and enter the mainstream of the school's instructional 

Hambleton (1982) offers another response to role designation as seen 
through an analysis of studies on school library media specialists and 
programs by various school-based individuals as well as by media special- 
ists themselves. 

In the numerous studies carried out in the past twenty years, a number of 
conclusions are common: that the school librarian's perception of that role differs 
significantly from that of others in the educational system, that the school library 
seems to play only a marginal role in the total educational program, and that the 
low regard for the school librarian militates against a direct involvement in the 
instructional program of the school, (pp. 18-20) 

The impact of the perceived role designation, or lack thereof, of the 
library media specialist was further cited by Judy Pitts (1984) in "A Cre- 
ative Survey of Research Concerning Role Expectations of Library Media 
Specialists." Four of these findings are summarized below: 

1. Today's library media specialists preferred the traditional services of 
acquisition and distribution, as opposed to instructional development, 
evaluation, and utilization. 

2. Professional media specialists could communicate to teachers the 
instruction role they played much better than part-time or nonprofes- 
sional library media specialists. 

3. Librarians with more diversified interests exhibited more involvement 
in the curriculum. 

4. Librarians with low self-images spent more of their work time in the 
media center doing clerical tasks and less work with students (pp. 

These findings, coupled with the research excerpt of Hambleton, 
create the frame of mind necessary to eliminate the negative aspects of what 
we need to be to and for schools and promote planning for the future. 
Understanding this research may be just the impetus for library media 
specialists to become more aggressive in their discipline. We must be 
aggressive in order to promote the field and its necessity, not merely 
relevance, to the educational arena by showing the achievements and 

144 Managers and Missionaries 

benefits to young people. "School library media specialists and children's 
librarians have long had specialized programs to meet special needs; then 
some degree of specialization in other areas became the rule" (Hannigan, 
1984, p. 24). The specialization, more than likely, has been in a content 
area, or in general elementary education/teaching. 

Just as we promote freedom to read, we have promoted putting mecha- 
nisms into place to allow personal participation in what children read and 
view outside the library media center walls. "Technological advancements 
have redefined the role of the school media specialist in the 1 980's from that 
of a collector of resources and administrator of a facility to that of a teacher 
and instructional designer" (Hortin, 1985, pp. 20-21). 

Reading any of the literature enhances the knowledge that school 
media specialists, along with being teachers and instructional designers, 
are setting priorities as participants in the instructional program. We are 
bringing to the table personal expertise in research skills, teaching metho- 
dology, curriculum development, etc. We are integrating the standards of 
learning and collection development into the overall pattern of classroom 
instruction, which is as it should be. Consequently, the role of the library 
media specialist becomes a more integral part of, and reinforces the role of, 
the classroom teacher. 

Liesner states that it is time to accept and develop the information 
intermediary function that we perform and not worry about whether we 
are teachers or not. Of course we perform a teaching function, but it should 
be based on our own discipline and related to the essential intermediary 
role we are playing and need to expand and improve (Liesner, 1984, p. 85). 
No longer do we need to carry the self-imposed weight of feeling like 
second-class teachers or of considering ourselves as "enrichment for the 
basics rather than as the fodder on which learning can thrive; enrichment, 
like butter on bread, can be scraped off or done without when times get 
tough" (Loertscher, 1982, pp. 415-21). Loertscher goes on to say: "If library 
media specialists can take the best programming ideas they have now and 
integrate them into the instructional program... they will be demonstrating 
their worth instead of just talking about it" (p. 421). 

This, then, is what we need to be to schools. The library media 
specialists, moving toward expansion of services to meet the intellectual 
needs of a more technologically advanced society, demanding higher level 
skills, and more complex means of integrating those skills into a multifa- 
ceted curriculum design is, indeed, what we should be accomplishing. 

It is universally understood that "the keeper of the books" is now the 
"information keeper/ retriever/disseminator." "The older concepts of pas- 
sive culture repositories or centers for the development of an enjoyment 
and appreciation for reading good books while identifying very important 
functions, do not appear to be actively responsive to the entire range of 

What Do Schools Need 145 

needs identified as crucial for survival and achievement in an extremely 
complex, information and rapidly changing world" (Liesner, 1984, p. 69). 
What are school library media specialists doing to secure their effectiveness 
in the twenty-first century? It is safe to say that if we are professionally 
astute, we are: 

1. soliciting the support of school administrators; 

2. sponsoring and presenting in-service programs for the teachers with 
whom we work; 

3. producing much needed instructional materials not available through 
commercial sources or too expensive to purchase; 

4. managing media centers with computer programs designed to provide 
the much needed time for student and teacher joint efforts; 

5. training students to use the electronic formats of information retrieval 
so that a broader base of research is at their fingertips; 

6. accepting responsibility for and asking to be part of contributing to the 
curriculum design effort of the school program; 

7. providing, for preview purposes, newly produced/ printed materials in 
an effort to bring teachers and administrators into the selection process; 
in this manner they gain a commitment to and a responsibility for the 
importance of collection development based on the educational philo- 
sophy of the program; 

8. acknowledging that we may be our own worst enemies in not actively 
seeking and establishing our role in the total scheme of educating 

9. sharing with each other goals and dreams for what can be done and 
what has been done, and, in so doing, learning from, with, and for each 

10. adamantly stating personnel worth and justifiably taking credit for 

11. developing curricula of library skills to be integrated into the subject 
content areas; thus showing the significant impact of the field on all 
others, and broadening the scope of educating youth, and; 

12. reaching out to other libraries and agencies to supplement needed mate- 
rials, gain additional support, and make them active participants in the 
goal and knowledgeability of the role of the library media specialist. 

If the twenty-first century is to look bright, library media specialists 
must become not only accountable, but accomplished in their role and 
with the impact of it on the education of youth. The confusion over role 
designation has not kept library media specialists from moving forward. 
What we should be doing is evidenced by the apparent knowledge and 
understanding of what we have been doing, the desire to determine what 
the schools need, and the determination to reach that need, mitigate the 
negative effects of what has not been done and cause us to move forward. 

146 Managers and Missionaries 


Hambleton, A. (1982, May /June). Static in the educational intercom: Conflict and school li- 
brarian. Emergency Librarian, 9, 18. 

Hannigan, J. (1984). Vision to purpose to power: A quest for excellence in the education of 
library and information science professionals. In Libraries and the learning society: 
Papers in response to a nation at risk (p. 24). Chicago: American Library Association. 

Hortin, J. A. (1985, September). The changing role of the school media specialist. Tech 
Trends, 36, 20-21. 

Liesner, J. W. (1984). Learning at risk: School library media programs in an information 
world. In Libraries and the learning society: Papers in response to a nation at risk. 
Chicago: American Library Association. 

Loertscher, D. (1982a, February). School library media centers: The revolutionary past. Wil- 
son Library Bulletin, 56, 416. 

Loertscher, D. (1982b, February). The second revolution: A taxonomy for the 1980s. Wilson 
Library Bulletin, 56, 421. 

Olson, L. W. (1984, Fall). Unassailable truth? A look at the concept of school library media 
specialists as teachers. School Library Media Quarterly, 12, 55. 

Pitts, J. M. (1982, Winter). A creative survey of research concerning role expectations of li- 
brary media specialists. School Library Media Quarterly, 10, 164-169. 


School of Library and Information Science 

University of Iowa 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Evaluation and Measurement 
of Youth Services 

The current effort to improve the quality of youth services and to expand 
these services must be firmly grounded in a meaningful context of evalua- 
tion. Evaluation of personnel and measurement and evaluation of pro- 
gram are essential components of any program which is striving for 
excellence in the delivery of needed services. Every time personnel evalua- 
tion is considered, I am reminded of the principal at my first position as a 
school library media specialist. 

He felt that the best methods of evaluating my performance (and, 
truthfully, my program by extension) was to count the frequency with 
which I changed the bulletin boards in the library. I suppose you could 
develop some output measure for this. It was very soon found that students 
were more adept at this, and soon another measure of performance (and of 
my program) became the number of students who were involved in library 
media center activities. The true problem encountered here was that my job 
description really only evolved there was never sufficient prior planning 
between me and the principal for what I intended to accomplish. And this 
prior planning does appear to be one of the most important components of 
developing meaningful methods for program and personnel evaluation. If 
this does not occur, there is the real problem in schools of library media 
specialists being evaluated on the same basis as classroom teachers, a 
process which does not fully address all the activities of library media 
specialists, regardless of how much we teach. 

Youth services librarians, regardless of their institution, should have a 
major voice in communicating to their superiors the types of desired 
evaluation processes and methods. This input can help administrators see 
very clearly the relationship of library services in a school to the instruc- 
tional program or the roles which children's and young adult librarians 
are playing in achieving the public library's goals. 


148 Managers and Missionaries 

A process of communication in which goals are determined, in which 
priorities among library functions are established, and in which perfor- 
mance measures (or quality indicators) are defined is essential. There is a 
real need for youth librarians to be evaluated in terms of their jobs and not 
on the basis of some particular conception of librarianship which may 
have little relationship to the actual job at hand. If performance is not 
going to be evaluated by your planning with teachers, there will likely be 
little payoff for spending the time, energy, and intelligence which that 
entails. On the other hand, if you minimize in advance the importance of 
the clerical and technical aspects of your program, then this conception of 
librarianship will not play as important a part in performance evaluation. 
So then, performance evaluation measures should be planned in advance, 
should be job specific, should be viewed positively, should be ongoing in 
the sense that they can be modified as program goals are modified, and 
should provide some indicators and measures for assessing the extent to 
which the librarian is meeting or exceeding expectations. 

The process of performance evaluation should be based upon the most 
appropriate mix of methods for a given situation. Each librarian should 
work to make certain that the best data can be gathered to determine 
effectiveness and to indicate areas for improvement and growth. Methods 
which might be considered in determining the most appropriate mix are: 
establishing performance standards or competencies; establishing specific 
levels of acceptable performance on these criteria; supervisor observation 
of performance (here it is extremely important that a conference be held 
prior to the observation so that the supervisor will understand the purposes 
of the activities); supervisor review of performance; peer and client review 
of performance (in a school setting, important data for performance 
improvement can be gained by systematically gaining input from teachers 
and students); systematic self-assessment (it truly is renewing to have the 
opportunity to examine the extent to which personal and professional 
goals are being attained); and objective assessment of the degree of attain- 
ment of institutional goals. 

Those in youth librarianship have available a multitude of instru- 
ments which recently have been developed to evaluate the performance of 
youth librarians. These can be of great assistance in the development of 
instruments for local use. A clever idea is to make adaptations of existing 
instruments since evaluation in the best sense is a local process to meet 
local goals. 

Goal Setting for Youth Library Programs 

One of the clearest ways for youth library services to be more visible 
and to communicate program excellence is through the intricate and 

Evaluation and Measurement 149 

necessary process of the establishment of program goals. Without the 
direction of goals, it is difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate programs in 
meaningful ways. In schools, the interactive process of working with 
students, faculty, and administrators helps ensure that library program 
goals are derived from school goals and that the program functions which 
flow from these goals are consistent with the curricular and instructional 
objectives of the school. A major benefit of this interactive involvement is 
that many schools report that library and information skills goals have 
become a part of the stated goals and priorities for the school. 

In public libraries there are numerous methods for the establishment 
of goals for youth services which are congruent with the goals of the parent 
institution. The Planning Process for Public Libraries enables an individ- 
ual institution to determine those goals and consequently the objectives 
which will give direction to library programs and to budget allocations. 
We need to begin to gather data on a national basis which will communi- 
cate the importance of youth services within libraries. Many public librar- 
ies, both voluntarily and as requirements for accreditation, are collecting 
and reporting output measures. There is considerable anecdotal evidence 
that youth services may account for large portions of the circulation per 
capita, turnover rate, attendance per capita, and registration per capita of 
the library's output measures. We should make a concerted effort in each 
library to determine the proportion which youth services contribute as a 
justification on the local level for staff, budgets, etc., and to make youth 
services even more visible to library staff and trustees. In the effort to help 
each child in the United States receive a public library card by the end of 
1987, we can certainly see youth services expanding across the nation. Now 
is probably exactly the time to begin to measure and report our effective- 
ness and accomplishments. A joint effort among the youth divisions 
(YASD, AASL, and ALSC) of ALA should be undertaken to assist local 
libraries in gathering and reporting data regarding the current status of 
youth services. 

In all libraries serving youth, a critical part of the evaluation process is 
to use measures which will gauge the satisfaction of users, actual and 
potential, with services and collections. An analysis of demographic data 
will indicate who our clients are. Measures need to be developed which will 
help determine penetration, or the use of the services by the user popula- 
tion; availability (why an available service is not being used or to determine 
why an unavailable desired service is not being made available); and 
determine the degree of satisfaction with the services of both users and staff. 

Some cringe at the thought of measurement and reporting of services, 
feeling that some currently available measures are too primitive, mecha- 
nistic, or rudimentary to come close to conveying the quality of the human 
interactions in library services. Some librarians say that they simply do not 

150 Managers and Missionaries 

have the time to collect data in order to report measures of effectiveness. We 
appear, however, to be in an era when the gathering and reporting of data 
is so essential to the continued improvement of youth services that we 
simply must make time and make certain that the measures used do have 
meaning for us. 

As indicated earlier, we have the responsibility for determining the 
goals and measures which are appropriate for our library. This also gives 
us the responsibility for measuring the extent to which those goals have 
been achieved or exceeded. When budget crunches come, we should not 
have to rely on the good graces of funding authorities, hoping that they 
nostalgically will remember children's services. It has become clear that in 
many school systems library services are among the first to be considered 
for cutbacks. We must now be prepared for interpreting and justifying 
current levels of funding and services and also be prepared for having 
realistic plans for program expansion. An essential element of this process 
is the identification of the audience to be served. The youth divisions of 
ALA have the opportunity and need to define by age who is a child, an early 
adolescent, and a young adult. In order to present, on a national level, a 
status report of youth services, we need to be able to define terms. If we do 
not, there will be scant comparability of data and the prospects are that 
youth services may suffer. 

Measurement of Services Some New Possibilities 

The use of output measures has indeed become widely accepted in 
public libraries, and school library media specialists should develop mea- 
sures which are meaningful for reporting progress in the library media 
program. The available output measures, as noted earlier, do not address 
some of the important elements of our programs, elements which merit 
more sophisticated methods of measurement. The extent to which the 
school library media specialist performs the instructional role, engages in 
the provision of access to students and collection evaluation, and the extent 
of promotion of materials through reading guidance are four areas which 
will serve as illustrations of where new measurement methods might be 

Instructional Role Quotient 

In school library media programs, we must demonstrate a high level of 
involvement in the instructional programs of schools. There is a real need 
to demonstrate to ourselves and to administrators that we are making the 
best possible uses of the collections and of our competence in instructional 
development. The personalization of instruction implies very strongly a 

Evaluation and Measurement 151 

systematic approach to the decisions regarding the best learning alterna- 
tives for each student. In the past we have typically relied on reporting 
numbers of teachers with whom we have teamed, numbers of classes which 
have used the media center's collection, and percentages of students taught. 
These appear to be rudimentary in that we are penalized for that teacher who 
simply will not use materials other than a textbook and a chalkboard, and 
these measures do not allow for the varying amount of time involved in 
various levels of working with teachers. I have developed an Instructional 
Role Quotient which might help present a more accurate and more posi- 
tive picture of what we are doing when working in this capacity. Also, after 
gathering baseline data, a quotient such as this might be used in establish- 
ing goals for improvement (see Figure 1). 

IRQ = 

a = planning, implementing, and evaluating instruction 
with teacher(s); teaching library media skills when 
appropriate; certainly correlating library media center 
materials with instructional objectives; may or may not 
include grading of student work; may or may not include local 
production of materials; may or may not include 
gathering resources from other information agencies; 
does include evaluating the effectiveness of the materials used. 

b = provision of materials to meet instructional 

objectives after planning session(s) with teachers(s); 
faculty involvement in selection of titles for these 
objectives will count here. No evaluation of 
effectiveness of materials. 

c Provide guidance to students who come from a class 

requiring information, without planning with teacher(s). 

d = Acquire and organize materials in the subject area. 

e Instructional materials are not available to 
support the unit. 

n = Number of applicable units in the designated time 
period (NOTE: the time period is your 
decision; suggestions are a full year, semester, 
or grading period). 

Figure 1. Instructional Role Quotient (IRQ) 

152 Managers and Missionaries 

This formula will give credit for the amount of work involved in 
planning with teachers and will not overly penalize for the teachers who do 
not use media center materials, even when the units are applicable. An 
example of the use of this formula follows: 

_ 6a + 4fr + 2c + d - e _ 
IRQ ~ n 

_ 6(2) + 4(12) + 2(60) + 19 - 1 = 198 

80 80 

IRQ = 2.475 

In the earlier example, there are eighty applicable units during the desig- 
nated time period (n). In two (a) of the units, you work with the teacher in 
planning, implementing, and evaluating instruction. In twelve (b) you 
correlate materials with the objectives; in sixty (c) you work with students 
who need information; in nineteen (d) materials are available; and in one 
(e) there are no materials available. In this example, the IRQ is 2.475 on a 
scale of 6.000 to negative 1 .000. Your goal then may be to maintain an IRQ 
of 2.475 or increase this quotient to a higher number. 

Access Quotients 

Many libraries report attendance figures, either average daily atten- 
dance or visits per capita, or other. These statistics do not reflect the pur- 
poses of use. Padding attendance figures with students who are simply 
attending a study hall and not using materials or using the library as a 
dating center are not the best ways of communicating access. "Purposes of 
use" is a concept which we must help administrators (and users) consider 
as priorities. The following Daily Access Quotient (DAQ) helps shed light 
on the activities which users pursue in our centers (see Figure 2). 

In the twenty-day period (n), note that 950 students attended the media 
center, and the average daily attendance was 47. 500. The earlier mentioned 
DAQ is best used for in-house measurement of use since it is influenced by 
the number of students in the school and other internal factors. A standard- 
ized figure would be to consider enrollment and could be presented as the 
per capita access quotient (PCAQ). 

s number of students 



PCAQ = 5.500 

Evaluation and Measurement 153 

4x + 4y + 3z + a - sh 

x = number of students you teach library-related 
content, either inside or outside the media 

y = number of students working on activities and 
with materials you have planned for specific 
instructional objectives (generally this would 
be in periods following instruction or introduction). 

z = number of students working independently in 
using library media center materials; 

a = number of students attending with no 
discernible purpose; 

sh = number of students assigned to the library 
media center for study hall; 

n = number of days. 


4x + 4y + 3z + a - sh 

DAQ = 
DAQ = 

4(200) + 4(200) + 3(300) + 250 = 2750 

DAQ = 137.500 

Figure 2. Daily Access Quotient (DAQ) 

Collection Evaluation Measures 

In measurement and justification of library services, we often focus 
exclusively on inputs (e.g., twelve books/student) and have not done 
enough in measuring the effectiveness of collections. This becomes espe- 
cially critical when proposing additional expenditures for materials. 
Using a clever combination of input and output measures can paint a 
clearer picture for funding bodies of how much "bang for the buck" we are 
getting from our rather high-cost collections. 

David Loertscher has developed methods for collection "mapping" of 
general and specialized collections in terms of instructional objectives. 

154 Managers and Missionaries 

This is a means of telling us where the collections are strong and where 
they need more titles to meet adequately the instructional needs of stu- 
dents. School districts should use this mapping approach to determine the 
most appropriate statistics for determining exemplary collections as 
opposed to those making progress. Local assessment is essential here. 

Public and school libraries should both be gathering data regarding 
in-house use of all collections. This is particularly important for reference 
collections, periodicals, vertical files, and other collections whose use is 
not reflected in circulation statistics. This is also particularly important 
for libraries serving the information needs of young adults. 

In justifying any monies for materials, but most importantly for those 
high-cost items such as reference works, we should provide data regarding 
the cost per use. For example, if an encyclopedia set costs $500, some may 
feel that the old outdated set will last another year. However, if it is known 
that each set receives approximately 2,000 uses per year, then the cost per 
use is only 25 cents. A means of justifying periodical subscriptions is also 
cost per use. If a periodical costs $20 and the total uses of current and back 
issues is 200 in a year, then the cost per use of that periodical for that year is 
10 cents. These figures should be readily available both for in-house and 
external reporting. 

It is also becoming increasingly important to consider the concept of 
document delivery rate or "lag time" in providing information sources for 
children and young adults. Baseline data should be gathered and questions 
should be posed regarding the acceptability of the lag time and decisions 
made regarding steps to take to reduce this figure. 

Reading Guidance Quotient 

A function dear to all of us is providing guidance to users of the 
collections. An in-house measure to determine how well materials are 
promoted can be expressed as a Reading Guidance Quotient (see Figure 3). 

In this example, fifty new titles were promoted using direct, specially 
designed direct and indirect methods for each title. No title went straight to 
the shelves. The range in this formula is 6.000 to negative 1.000. 

The purpose of this presentation has been to reinforce the theme of the 
conference managers and missionaries. I believe that youth services li- 
brarians are missionaries in the best definition of that term. If we can bol- 
ster fervor with measurement and evaluation data which justify our great 
faith and zeal, then we as managers of change can hopefully achieve the type 
of future sought for youth services. Cooperative efforts among the youth di- 
visions of ALA, among library school educators, and among all librarians 
serving youth, regardless of type of library, can help us as a unified coali- 
tion bring about the scenarios established at this landmark conference. 

Evaluation and Measurement 155 

D __ _ 3d + 2sdi + id - sos 

d number of titles promoted by DIRECT reading 
reading guidance techniques; e.g., booktalking, 
book discussion, individual referral (either 
oral or written), reviews in newspapers, cable 
TV exposure, etc. 

sdi - number of titles promoted by SPECIALLY DESIGNED 
INDIRECT techniques; e.g., pathfinders, "What to Read 
After You Read...," thematic bookmarks; 
thematic displays, etc. 

id number of titles promoted by other INDIRECT 
techniques e.g., display books, general 
listing of new arrivals, etc. 

sos = number of titles with no promotion 
(straight on shelves) 

n = number of possible titles (this will vary; 
you may be promoting one portion of the 
collection, or new arrivals, or...). 


_ 3d + 2sdi + id - sos 


_ 3(50) + 2(50) + 50 - = 300 


50 50 

RGQ = 6.000 

Figure 3. Reading Guidance Quotient (RGQ) 


Media Services Coordinator 

Riverside-Brookfield High School 

Riverside, Illinois 

Developing a Youth Agenda 
for the Information Age 

Looking at this audience of some 200 professionals dedicated to improving 
library services to children and young adults, I am reminded of a story 
about Don Adcock's daughter. Some of you know Don director of 
Library Services for the Glen Ellyn, Illinois elementary school district, and 
active in state and national library associations. 

Some years ago he told me that one of his daughters in the early 
elementary grades was asked as a class assignment to draw a picture of what 
her mother or father did as "their job." She drew her dad driving a car. 
During the "show and tell" phase of this occupation study unit, she 
explained her father's occupation. He wasn't a taxi driver nor a traveling 
salesman. She explained that her dad was a librarian he went to meet- 
ings. There is a postscript to this story. Don's daughter is now an adult and 
is now the director of a public library in a small town in Illinois, and now 
she goes to meetings too. 

We all have ways of rating these library-related meetings. In addition 
to perceptions of the quality of programming and vitality of participants, 
we often have a subjective yardstick or measure. 

As a "Notable Quotable" collector, I am a collector of memorable 
phrases, apt euphemisms, and vivid images offered by speakers at con- 
ferences and institutes. Let me share some of these quotes that I have 
gathered at this Allerton Institute. (Incidentally, on the basis of both 
quantity and quality of "Notable Quotables," this has to rate as a Four- 
Star Meeting.) Perhaps, too, the process will help relive the memorable 
moments we have shared, and perhaps even help focus on the task of this 

Regina Minudri reminded us that: "Most important people have been 
young adults at some time in their lives!" She also urged us to remember 
that "while we are speaking on issues, hopefully if not all in one voice, at 


158 Managers and Missionaries 

least in the same key." Let's remember this as work is done on our agenda- 
building task this morning. 

And so we are about to embark on the agenda-building process. It's 
time to work together to create a document to serve as a plan, a road map for 
the future using our higher order thinking skills. If we do our work well 
today, we truly do have the opportunity to fulfill Marilyn Miller's pro- 
phesy: "This Allerton will be viewed as a milestone in the development of 
library service to youth." 

The following are the recommendations of the participants of the 
1986 Allerton Institute for the Youth Agenda. They are presented by each 
of the three focus areas examined at the institute. 



Recruitment of Youth Services Library Staff on 
Professional and Paraprofessional Levels 

1 . Improve the image of youth services workers. 

2. Attain pay equity within the profession. 

3. Recruit in undergrad programs, schools of education, and from begin- 
ning students in library science programs. 

4. Establish mentorship programs and other formal contacts between 
practitioners and students in library school. 

5. Define skills and qualities needed for youth services staff. 

6. Examine seniority issues in both school and public library settings so 
that transferring from within the profession is easier. 


1 . ALA youth divisions should work jointly to influence ALA legislation 
policy where youth issues are involved. 

2. ALA youth divisions should train youth librarians to be effective politi- 
cally and to build coalitions. 

3. Professional relationships should be established at the local, state, and 
national levels both within and outside the profession. Individual 
librarians, state and regional associations, agencies, and the youth 
divisions of ALA should be active in coalition-building. 

4. Identify and publicize liaisons already existing between youth divisions 
and other youth-serving associations and organizations, and identify 
and publicize special projects which show that cooperation works in 
improving library service for youth. 

Developing a Youth Agenda 159 

5. Respect differences between youth services librarians and divisions at 
all levels and make commitment to working together. 

6. Have ALA develop policy and guidelines on coalition-building. 

7. Build active liaisons with associations such as professional education 


1 . Develop a proactive stand in supporting legislation for youth. 

2. Require state ALA chapters to report annually on legislation to the 
ALA council pertaining to all types of libraries. 


1. Identify illiterates including levels of illiteracy and examine motiva- 
tions to become literate. 

2. At the national level, develop a program that provides definition, an 
awareness campaign, funding for programs for the various target 
groups, the establishment of a program clearinghouse, and coalition- 

3. At the state level, provide funding for literacy programs, legislative 
support, training for library workers, and consultant support. 

4. At the local level, provide funding, implement programs, work with 
other community agencies concerned with literacy, and provide staff 
and other support to new readers. 


1 . Identify changes in composition of the library community, for example 
the number of mothers in the work force, information on the current 
immigrant population, and the growth/reduction of specific age 
groups, etc. 

2. Devise tools for collecting demographic data. 

3. Actual collection of data on the local level with data compiled at the 
state and regional level. 

4. Evaluate present services/ resources in light of population changes at 
the local level. 

5. Library education institutions need to recognize changes and adjust 
curriculum and recruitment strategies. 

Librarian as Agent of Change 

1 . Youth services librarians should be involved in the management and 
development of library service in the larger sense at the local, state, and 
national levels. 

160 Managers and Missionaries 

2. Practitioner and library educators should work together to change and 
amend library school curricula as needed. 

Access to Information for Youth 

1 . Dissemination of and support of the Library Bill of Rights and Access 
Statement for School Librarians. 

2. Removal of regulations denying access to materials of all forms and 
formats by age. 

3. Education of parents/community on the importance of open access to 
materials and information for youth. 

4. Provisions of new technologies and use of technology for obtaining 
information and communication for youth. 

5. Development and promotion of book selection, interlibrary loan, col- 
lection development, and fee policies that include service to youth. 

Youth Services Staff as Managers 

1 . Youth services librarians should have opportunities for involvement in 
local, area, and state boards, including boards and committees outside 
youth service. 

2. Youth services librarians should be assertive as managers. 

3. Youth services librarians should go outside parochial interest by show- 
ing interest in topics outside youth areas. 

4. Youth services librarians should interact with committees and faculty 
in library schools and in teaching courses outside. 





Continuing Education 

1. Create a clearinghouse of educational programs for youth specialists 
coordinated with CLENE. 

2. Explore opportunities for teleconferencing and other alternative forms 
of continuing education. 

3. Provide continuing education for all youth services workers. 

4. Provide continuing education in related disciplines such as child psy- 
chology and management. 

5. Develop ways of funding continuing education. 

Developing a Youth Agenda 161 

Youth Consultants 

1. Provide a state level consultant in each state for youth services. 

2. Work with the state board of education on coordinating programs 
between school and public libraries. 

3. Link libraries with literacy efforts at state and regional levels to support 
the rationale for youth consultants. 

4. Provide system and regional youth services consultants. 

5. Develop a coalition of youth divisions in ALA and PLA. 

6. Petition to adopt a youth agenda by ALA. 


1. Develop a list of competencies for youth services workers. 

2. Set standards for library and media center programs. 

3. Explore the possibility of the construction of a national exam for youth 
service workers. 

4. Gather data on the various state certification programs. Identify or 
develop a workable model for certification of school media specialists. 

5. Examine and revise as necessary library school curricula related to 
youth services. 


1. Identify model individuals and programs in youth services and publi- 
cize them. 

2. Be visible in nonyouth-oriented activities in the library profession. 

3. Assume leadership roles in professional activities. 



National Coordination 

1 . ALA divisions should gather, synthesize, and distribute local and/or 
state standards. 

2. Adapt Output Measures for Public Libraries to youth services needs, 
recognizing that tools and standards can be used to justify effective 
budget results. 

3. Include training for evaluation in library education and provide in- 
service training for youth service librarians on evaluation techniques. 

162 Managers and Missionaries 


1. Develop measures of success in reaching target audiences. 

2. Create a clearinghouse for samples of evaluations using qualitative and 
quantitative measurement techniques. Publish results of research 
related to youth services. 

3. Hold a national program on this topic with representatives from other 
organizations concerned with evaluation. 

4. Develop a research agenda for youth services. 

Having developed a national youth agenda, it is time to develop a 
personal agenda, a commitment to list the beginnings or continuations 
that you can make, for this is not a challenge to "they" but to "we." What 
will you do tomorrow? What will you do next week? Next month? Next 
year? As Gerald Hodges said: "We all need to establish priorities." 

At the opening session Marilyn Miller said she hoped it wasn't a 
"freeze-dried" speech. I can say that I know this is not a freeze-dried agenda 
we are developing. 

I'd like to share two final notable quotables, not from the Allerton 
Institute but two of my favorites. Both relate to attitude, often an overrid- 
ing factor in the success of any venture. First, Henry Ford said: "If you 
think you can or if you think you can't, you're right!" Second, as Yoda said 
to Luke Skywalker: "There is notT-R-Y there's only DO or NOT DO. 

Let's do it! 


JOAN L. ATKINSON, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Library 
and Information Service, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

MARGARET BUSH, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Library & 
Information Science, Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts. 

JULIE CUMMINS, Children's Services Consultant, Monroe County 
Library System, Rochester, New York. 

JUDITH A. DRESCHER, Director of Libraries, Memphis/Shelby County 
Public Library and Information Center, Memphis, Tennessee. 

LESLIE EDMONDS, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Library and 
Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 

RUTH FAKLIS, Youth Services Consultant, Suburban Library System, 
Burr Ridge, Illinois. 

DAWN H. HELLER, Media Servies Coordinator, Riverside-Brookfield 
High School, Riverside, Illinois. 

CRAIGHTON HIPPENHAMMER, Assistant Children's Services Man- 
ager, Cuyahoga County Public Library, Cleveland, Ohio. 

GERALD G. HODGES, Assistant Professor, School of Library and Infor- 
mation Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. 

MARGARET MARY KIMMEL, Professor, School of Library and Infor- 
mation Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

FRANCES M. McDONALD, Associate Professor, Library Media Educa- 
tion, Mankato State University, Mankato, Minnesota. 

MARILYN L. MILLER, Professor and Chair, Department of Information 
and Library Studies, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, North 

REGINA MINUDRI, Director, Berkeley [California] Public Library and 
President American Library Association. 

DELORES ZACHARY PRETLOW, Supervisor of Media Services, Rich-^ 
mond Public Schools, Richmond, Virginia. 

SUSAN ROSENZWEIG, Information Manager, Center for Early Adoles- 
cence, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

HELEN LLOYD SNOKE, Professor, School of Library Science, Univer- 
sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 


164 Managers and Missionaries 

CHRISTY TYSON, Youth Services Consultant, Alabama Public Library 
Service (at the time of the Allerton Conference, Young Adult Services 
Coordinator at Spokane [Washington] Public Library). 

JANA VARLEJS, Director, Professional Development Studies, School of 
Communication, Information and Library Studies, Rutgers, The State 
University of New Jersey. 


Access, Information retrieval, 33 

Access Quotients: 152; Daily Access 
Quotient (DAQ), 152-53; Per Capita 
Access Quotient (PCAQ), 152 

Accreditation: American Library Asso- 
ciation, MLS, 103; National Council 
on Accreditation of Teacher Educa- 
tion, 103 

Administration, budgets, 21 

Adolescents, 5, 14 

The ALA Yearbook of Library and In- 
formation Services, 82 

Aliteracy, 10 

Allen, Melody, 95 

Alliance for Excellence Task Force 
Report, 3 

The American Association of School 
Librarians (AASL), 5, 62, 96 

Area 2 Library Services Authority in 
Indiana, 119 

The Association for Library Service to 
Children (ALSC), 5, 92, 96 

Association for Supervision and Curri- 
culum Development (ASCD), 9 

Atkinson, Hugh, Strategies for Change: 
Part 1, 39 

Atkinson, Joan, 2, 103 

Behavioral Requirements Analysis 

Checklist, 118 
Book evaluation: selection, cooperative 

efforts, 5-6 
Boss, Richard, Grant Money and How 

to Get It, 71 
Bottom Line: A Financial Magazine for 

Libraries, 66 
Budgets, 20-25 
Buildings, design, 29 
Bush, Margaret, 2, 89 

Censorship, 55-63; library education, 
60-61; personal characteristics, 57; 
professional ethics, 58-59; profes- 
sional organizations, 62; selection, 55 

Center for Early Adolescence, 38 

Certification. See Youth librarians 

Child development, 137 

Children's librarians. See Youth li- 

Cleveland Public Library, 43 

Coalition-building, 11, 15, 18, 41-49; 
survey, 45 

Coalitions. See Coalition-building 

Code of ethics, 56, 58 

Code of Federal Regulations, 75 

Collaborative on Teaching Thinking, 9 

Collection development, 12; policies, 
13; resource-sharing, 12; school and 
public libraries, 12, 13 

Committee on Library Education 
(SCOLE), 116 

Communication center, 29-31; com- 
munity agencies, 29; public relations, 

Communication technology, 9; elec- 
tronic classrooms, 10 

Community hub, 36-38; programs for 
parents, 37 

Competencies for Librarians Serving 
Youth, 91, 107, 118 

Conant, Ralph, 97 

Continuing education: professional 
organizations, 62; youth librarians, 
32, 98, 115-19, 25, 133-34, 160-61 

Continuing Library Education Net- 
work and Exchange (CLENE), 116 

Cooperation, public and school li- 
braries, 5-6, 11-13 

Creative survey of Research Concerning 
Role Expectations of Library Media 
Specialists, 143 

Culture, values and curriculum, 8 

Cummins, Julie, 2, 29 

Cuyahoga County, Ohio, 79, 87 

Demographics, 6, 36-37, 39 
Don Adcock, 157 
Drescher, Judith, 2, 137 

Edmonds, Leslie, 3, 96 

Educational Programs for Librarians 
Who Work With Youth, 129 

Educational programs: goals and pri- 
orities, 10-11 

Education, youth librarians, 90-101, 
103-12, 125, 129-35; Intellectual free- 
dom, 60-61 

Electronic classrooms, 10 



Managers and Missionaries 

Elleman, Barbara, 69 
Energy center, programming, 35-36 
Evaluation, of youth services, 1, 147-51, 
161-62; fund-raising, 67 

Faklis, Ruth, 2, 75 

Ferber, Even, 46 

Field trips, 5-6 

First Amendment: professional library 

practice, 60, 63; intellectual freedom, 


Ford, Henry, 162 
Format, information retrieval, 33 
Friends of the Library, 19 
Fund-raising, 65-73 
Funding, youth services, 18, 65-73; 

Corporations, 70; foundations, 71; 

Friends of the Library, 69; LSCA, 

75-76; patrons, 70; private donors, 71; 

PTA, 69 

Grant Proposal Writing: A Handbook 
for School Library Media Specialists, 

Grants. See Library Services and Con- 
struction Act (LSCA) 

Hannigan, Jane Anne, 91, 97, 106 
Haycock, Ken, 106, 107 
Heim, Kathleen, 90 
Heller, Dawn, 2 
Helping Teachers Teach, 107 
Hippenhammer, Craighton, 2, 79 
Hodges, Gerald, 2, 97, 147 
Holmes Group, 108, 111 

Illinois Library Association, 44 

Illinois State Library, 75, 76 

Information Age: 157, developing a 
youth agenda, 157 

Information: communication techno- 
logy, 9-10 

Information retrieval, 33, 34; access, 33; 
format, 33 

Instructional Role Quotient, 150-52 

Intellectual freedom, 62; censorship, 56; 
First Amendment, 63 

Job satisfaction, 121, 126, 143 
Josey, E. J., 18 

Journal of Public and International 
Affairs, 123 

Kimmel, Margaret Mary, 2, 121 

Latchkey children, 7, 38 

Learning at Risk: School Library 
Media Programs in an Information 
World, 142 

Legislation, 159; legislation for youth, 

Libraries and the Learning Society, 106 

Library Bill of Rights, 56 

Library Friends. See Friends of the Li- 

Library programs, for parents, 37 

Library Services and Construction Act 
(LSCA), 75; grant application cri- 
teria, 77; refund of allocated funds by 
Illinois State Library, 76. See also 
Title I; Title II; Title III 

Licensing. See Youth librarians 

Liesner, James, 105, 106, 107, 142, 144 

Literacy, 34; literacy programs, 159 

LSCA. See Library Services and Con- 
struction Act 

Management: youth services, 1,17, 22, 
32, 158-60, see also Youth services 

Marketing, of youth services, 66, 68, 
79-88; data collection, 82; defined, 80; 
promotion, 83-84; trends, 81 

Massachusetts Library Association, 95 

McDonald, Frances, 2, 55 

Measurement: youth services, 147-51, 
162; library services, 153; effectiveness 
of collection, 153-54; mapping, 154; 
lag time, 154 

Media specialist. See School library 
media specialist 

Miller, Marilyn L., 5 

Minudri, Regina, 2, 17 

Minorities, 7, 37 

Moore, Anne Carroll, 11, 43 

Multitype library systems, 76 

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: prefer- 
ence measurement, 47-48 

Nation at Risk, 84 
Nebraska Library Commission, 44 
New York Library Association, 44 
New York Public Library: school- 
public library cooperation, 43; mate- 
rials budget, 69 
Nickelsberg, Marilyn, 98 



Ohio Library Association, 44, 79 

Performance evaluation. See Youth li- 

Perritt, Patsy, 90 
Planning Process for Public Libraries 

(ALA), 104, 149 

Policies: collection development, 13 
Pretlow, Delores Zachary, 2, 141 
Professional ethics, 63; censorship, 


Promotion. See Youth librarians 
Public Libraries: youth services, 5; 
USSR, 12; collection development, 

Public relations, youth services, 31, 66, 

Qualifications. See Youth librarians 

Rating: library related meetings, 157 
Reading Guidance Quotient (RGQ), 


Recruitment. See Youth librarians 
Resource sharing, 5-6, 12 
Rhode Island State Library, 95 
Roos, Jean, 43 
Rosenzweig, Susan, 2, 65 
Rural Library Service Newsletter, 98 

School librarians. See Youth librarians 
and School library media specialists 

School libraries. See School library 
media centers 

School library media centers, 1 1; collec- 
tion development, 12-13; curriculum 
development, 9; needs, 141-46; stan- 
dards, 90-91, 105 

School Library Media Employment 
Questionnaire, 133 

School library media specialists, 141-45; 
qualifications, 90-91; training, 14. 
See also Youth librarians 

Selection policies: examination of, 13; 
censorship, 5; intellectual freedom, 

Seuss, Dr., Once Upon a Time, 35 

Shortage. See Youth librarians 

Simmons College, 94, 95 

Single parent homes, 6 

Snoke, Helen Lloyd, 2, 129 

Southern Connecticut University, 94 

Standards. See Youth librarians 
Standards for children's services, 43 
Standards for Youth Services in Public 
Libraries of New York State, 92, 107, 

State Library of Iowa, 98 
Surveys: A Creative Survey of Research 
Concerning Role Expectations of 
Library Media Specialists, 143; Edu- 
cational Programs for Librarians 
Who Work With Youth, 129; School 
Library Media Employment Ques- 
tionnaire, 133. See also Youth ser- 

Technologies: literacy, 34; trends in 

youth service, 10, 81 
Title I funds (LSCA): services to disad- 

vantaged, 77-78; use limitations, 


Title II funds (LSCA), 75 
Title III funds (LSCA), 77 
Tomorrow's Teachers. See Holmes 


Training: library workers, 159 
Turner, Philip, 107 
Tyson, Christy, 2, 41 

Unassailable Truth? A Look at the 
Concept of School Library Media 
Specialists as Teachers, 142 
University of Rhode Island, 94 
U.S. Department of Education, 75 
USSR, libraries for children, 12 

Varlejs, Jana, 2, 115 

Vermont Department of Libraries, 44 

Women, careers, 122-23 

Yoda, 162 

Young adult librarians. See Youth li- 

Young Adult Services Division (YASD), 
5, 62, 96 

Young Adult Services in the Public Li- 
brary, 43 

Young adults, 5, 17-18; handicapped, 7; 
illegitimate, 7, 37; latchkey, 7, 38 

Youth librarians: certification, 93, 
103-12, 117; coalition-building, 158; 
continuing education, 98, 115-19, 

168 Managers and Missionaries 

125, 133-34; education, 90-101, 
103-12, 125, 129-35; Illinois, 93; 
image, 32, 86-87, 139, 141, 143; licens- 
ing, 103-12; Massachusetts, 95; 
Michigan, 93; New England, 94; pro- 
fessional relationships, 158; perfor- 
mance evaluation, 148; promotion, 
24; qualifications, 90-101, 103-12, 
137-39; recruitment, 1,90-101, 103-12, 
124, 160-61; shortage, 79, 94, 97, 99, 
121, 125; standards, 92, 104-05 

Youth services: credibility, 85-86; con- 
sultants, 161; design, 29-39; image, 
161; librarians, 154; library manage- 
ment, 159-60; library staff, 158; man- 
agement, 1,17, 22, 29-39; public rela- 
tions, 68; resource sharing, 5-6, 12; 
survey, 50-51; standards, 161; trends, 
85-87. See also Marketing of youth 

Youth services management: 158-60; 
recruitment, 158; legislation, 159; lit- 
eracy, 159; demographics, 159; pro- 
fessional and paraprofessionaK 158; 
library management, 159-60